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Table 5 Predictive and concurrent relationships between sleep and activity components at 1, 2, 3.5 and 5 years of age and fat-free mass index at 5 yearsa

From: 24-h movement behaviors from infancy to preschool: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with body composition and bone health

Age (years) Mean fat free mass index (SD) at 5 years of age, kg/m2 Component Regression coefficientb (SE) p-value 10% difference in minutes Estimated difference (95% CI) in % body fat with a 10% increase in component Estimated difference (95% CI) in % body fat with a 10% decrease in component
1 (n = 229) 12.7 (0.8) Sleepc − 0.46 (0.32) 0.144 71 −0.079 (− 0.184, 0.026) 0.079 (− 0.027, 0.185)
   Sedentaryd 0.27 (0.32) 0.393 56 0.038 (−0.049, 0.124) −0.039 (− 0.129, 0.050)
   LPA 0.16 (0.15) 0.278 18 0.015 (−0.012, 0.043) −0.017 (− 0.046, 0.013)
   MVPA 0.03 (0.04) 0.488 0.1 0.003 (−0.005, 0.010) −0.003 (− 0.011, 0.005)
2 (n = 158) 12.8 (0.8) Sleep −0.32 (0.35) 0.365 69 −0.053 (− 0.166, 0.061) 0.053 (− 0.061, 0.168)
   Sedentary 0.60 (0.32) 0.065 46 0.075 (−0.004, 0.154) −0.079 (− 0.162, 0.004)
   LPA −0.37 (0.32) 0.244 28 −0.039 (− 0.104, 0.026) 0.042 (− 0.028, 0.112)
   MVPA 0.09 (0.08) 0.234 0.6 0.008 (−0.005, 0.020) −0.008 (− 0.022, 0.005)
3.5 (n = 178) 12.8 (0.8) Sleep 2.19 (0.53) < 0.001 65 −0.346 (− 0.509, − 0.183) 0.352 (0.186, 0.518)
   Sedentary 0.87 (0.43) 0.046 47 0.110 (0.003, 0.217) −0.116 (− 0.229, − 0.003)
   LPA 1.26 (0.31) < 0.001 29 0.132 (0.070, 0.195) −0.143 (− 0.210, − 0.075)
   MVPA 0.06 (0.12) 0.641 2 0.005 (− 0.015, 0.024) − 0.005 (− 0.027, 0.017)
5 (n = 213) 12.7 (0.8) Sleep −0.82 (0.55) 0.134 64 −0.127 (− 0.292, 0.039) 0.129 (− 0.039, 0.298)
   Sedentary 0.17 (0.41) 0.673 49 0.022 (−0.080, 0.124) −0.023 (− 0.131, 0.084)
   LPA 0.48 (0.30) 0.116 28 0.050 (− 0.012, 0.111) −0.054 (− 0.120, 0.013)
   MVPA 0.17 (0.13) 0.170 3 0.015 (− 0.006, 0.035) −0.016 (− 0.039, 0.007)
  1. LPA is light physical activity, MVPA is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
  2. aAdjusted for randomised group, sex, primiparous, maternal education, household deprivation, ethnicity and maternal BMI. Analyses at 1 year of age further adjusted for whether the child was walking unaided or not walking
  3. bCoefficient for the first isometric log ratio (ilr) co-ordinate, which is proportional to the log ratio of the behavior and the geometric mean of the remaining behaviors; adjusted for remaining ilr co-ordinates
  4. cAll sleep estimates include naps where relevant
  5. dAll sedentary estimates include wake after sleep onset
  6. Bolded values indicate P < 0.05