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Table 7 Predictive and concurrent relationships between sleep and activity components at 1, 2, 3.5 and 5 years of age and total body minus head BMD (g/cm2) at 5 yearsa

From: 24-h movement behaviors from infancy to preschool: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with body composition and bone health

Age (years) Mean BMD (SD) at 5 years of age (g/cm2) Component Regression coefficientb (SE) p-value 10% relative difference in minutes Estimated difference (95% CI) in BMD with a 10% increase in component Estimated difference (95% CI) in BMD with a 10% decrease in component
1 (n = 229) 0.608 (0.037) Sleepc 0.010 (0.015) 0.516 71 0.002 (−0.003, 0.007) −0.002 (− 0.007, 0.003)
   Sedentaryd − 0.032 (0.015) 0.029 56 −0.004 (− 0.008, − 0.0005) 0.005 (0.0005, 0.009)
   LPA 0.024 (0.007) 0.001 18 0.002 (0.001, 0.004) −0.002 (− 0.004, − 0.001)
   MVPA −0.001 (0.002) 0.632 0.1 0.000 (−0.0004, 0.0002) 0.000 (−0.0003, 0.0005)
2 (n = 158) 0.609 (0.036) Sleep −0.003 (0.015) 0.839 69 −0.001 (− 0.005, 0.004) 0.001 (− 0.004, 0.005)
   Sedentary −0.010 (0.014) 0.465 46 −0.001 (− 0.005, 0.002) 0.001 (− 0.002, 0.005)
   LPA 0.002 (0.014) 0.904 28 0.000 (−0.003, 0.003) 0.000 (−0.003, 0.003)
   MVPA 0.012 (0.003) 0.001 0.6 0.001 (0.0004, 0.0015) −0.001 (− 0.0017, − 0.0005)
3.5 (n = 178) 0.607 (0.037) Sleep −0.021 (0.027) 0.426 65 −0.003 (− 0.012, 0.005) 0.003 (− 0.005, 0.012)
   Sedentary −0.007 (0.021) 0.751 47 −0.001 (− 0.006, 0.004) 0.001 (− 0.005, 0.006)
   LPA 0.015 (0.016) 0.351 29 0.002 (−0.002, 0.005) −0.002 (− 0.005, 0.002)
   MVPA 0.014 (0.006) 0.023 2 0.001 (0.0002, 0.0021) −0.001 (− 0.0023, − 0.0002)
5 (n = 213) 0.609 (0.037) Sleep −0.054 (0.025) 0.031 64 −0.008 (− 0.0008, − 0.0159) 0.009 (0.0008, 0.0162)
   Sedentary 0.036 (0.019) 0.055 49 0.005 (−0.0001, 0.0092) −0.005 (− 0.0097, 0.0001)
   LPA −0.001 (0.014) 0.953 28 0.000 (−0.003, 0.003) 0.000 (−0.003, 0.003)
   MVPA 0.019 (0.006) 0.001 3 0.002 (0.0007, 0.0026) −0.002 (− 0.0028, − 0.0007)
  1. LPA is light physical activity, MVPA is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
  2. aAdjusted for randomised group, sex, primiparous, maternal education, household deprivation, ethnicity and maternal BMI. Analyses at 1 year of age further adjusted for whether the child was walking unaided or not walking
  3. bCoefficient for the first isometric log ratio (ilr) co-ordinate, which is proportional to the log ratio of the behavior and the geometric mean of the remaining behaviors; adjusted for remaining ilr co-ordinates
  4. cAll sleep estimates include naps where relevant
  5. dAll sedentary estimates include wake after sleep onset
  6. Bolded values indicate P < 0.05