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Table 5 Cost-effectiveness results (incremental cost per QALY) with 6 month follow-up

From: Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a loyalty scheme for physical activity behaviour change maintenance: results from a cluster randomised controlled trial

Treatment group Cost (£)a QALYb
Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI
Intervention (n = 457) 253·49 188·41, 318·57 0·4157 0·4077, 0·4238
Control (n = 396) 227·64 170·86, 284·43 0·4158 0·4057, 0·4260
Difference (95% CI) 25·85 −29·89, 81·60 −0·0000891 −0·008, 0·008
ICER -£ 290,178 per QALY
95% CI for ICER (from bootstrap) -£480,012 to -£100,336 per QALY
  1. aAdjusted cost, per-participant intervention cost included in the cost of intervention group
  2. bAdjusted QALY
  3. Costs were estimated using generalised linear models, gamma family, log link. Decrements of QALY were estimated using generalized linear models, gamma family, log link. Arm level costs and QALYs were obtained from recycled predictions. Covariates for the models were: baseline cost and baseline utility, mean steps, age, sex, SF-8 physical and mental scores, cluster, Strata, and season. 95%CIs were obtained from 1000-iteration bootstrap
  4. CI Confidence interval, ICER Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, QALY Quality Adjusted Life Year, SE Standard error