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Table 1 Maternal baseline characteristics and children’s characteristics in early adolescence (N = 995)

From: Dietary behaviors throughout childhood are associated with adiposity and estimated insulin resistance in early adolescence: a longitudinal study

Maternal characteristics Overall (N = 995) Boys (N = 504) Girls (N = 491)
Age, years 32.4 ± 5.1 32.2 ± 5.3 32.6 ± 4.8
Annual household income, US$a
  > 70,000 589 (64) 302 (66) 287 (63)
  ≤ 70,000 327 (36) 155 (34) 172 (37)
Maternal education
  ≥ College degree 709 (71) 348 (69) 361 (74)
  < College degree 286 (29) 156 (31) 130 (26)
Mother’s marital status
 Married / cohabitating 916 (92) 466 (92) 450 (92)
 Other 79 (8) 38 (8) 41 (8)
Parity
 Nulliparous 472 (47) 239 (47) 233 (47)
  ≥ 1 child 523 (53) 265 (53) 258 (53)
Pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2 24.8 ± 5.2 24.8 ± 4.9 24.7 ± 5.5
Pre-pregnancy BMI
  ≥ 25 kg/m2 367 (37) 197 (39) 170 (35)
  < 25 kg/m2 628 (63) 307 (61) 321 (65)
Child characteristics Overall Boys Girls
Race / ethnicity
 White 647 (65) 315 (63) 332 (68)
 Black 29 (3) 16 (3) 13 (3)
 Asian 157 (16) 85 (17) 72 (15)
 Hispanic 45 (5) 24 (5) 21 (4)
 Other 117 (12) 64 (13) 53 (11)
Age at early adolescence visit, years 13.2 ± 0.9 13.2 ± 1.0 13.2 ± 0.9
BMI Z-score, unitb 0.37 ± 1.06 0.39 ± 1.06 0.34 ± 1.06
Waist circumference, cm 73.0 ± 11.6 73.3 ± 12.1 72.8 ± 11.1
BI whole-body fat, %c 21.8 ± 10.3 17.5 ± 9.3 26.2 ± 9.4
DXA whole-body fat, %d 28.6 ± 7.5 26.8 ± 8.0 30.4 ± 6.6
DXA trunk fat, kgd 6.2 ± 4.0 5.7 ± 4.0 6.6 ± 3.9
Trunk to peripheral fat ratiod 0.59 ± 0.12 0.57 ± 0.11 0.61 ± 0.12
Fasting glucose, mg/dle 92.9 ± 23.5 93.2 ± 18.3 92.6 ± 28.1
Fasting insulin, uU/mle 14.1 ± 9.0 12.7 ± 9.0 15.7 ± 8.9
HOMA-IRe 3.23 ± 2.43 2.88 ± 2.18 3.62 ± 2.63
  1. Presented as mean ± SD or N (%); BMI Body mass index, BI Bio-impedance, DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, HOMA-IR Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance
  2. aN = 916;b N = 991;c N = 982;d N = 721;e N = 579