Skip to main content

Table 2 Associations of maternal and child characteristics with dietary behaviors among Viva children throughout childhood (ages 4 to 11 years; N = 995)

From: Dietary behaviors throughout childhood are associated with adiposity and estimated insulin resistance in early adolescence: a longitudinal study

  Eating breakfast daily Eating dinner with family daily Eating fast food < 1/wk Eating meals while watching television < 1/wk
OR (95% CI)
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
Maternal characteristics
 Household income
  > 70,000 US$ 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   ≤ 70,000 US$ 0.55 (0.39, 0.76) 0.56 (0.40, 0.79) 0.97 (0.77, 1.22) 1.04 (0.83, 1.31) 0.87 (0.68, 1.11) 0.58 (0.45, 0.73) 0.76 (0.60, 0.98) 0.61 (0.48, 0.78)
Maternal education
   ≥ College degree 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
   < College degree 0.43 (0.31, 0.59) 0.45 (0.32, 0.63) 0.91 (0.73, 1.15) 0.76 (0.59, 0.97) 0.61 (0.48, 0.77) 0.49 (0.38, 0.64) 0.54 (0.42, 0.69) 0.46 (0.35, 0.60)
Maternal marital status
 Married / cohabitating 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
 Other 0.35 (0.21, 0.59) 0.39 (0.24, 0.64) 1.03 (0.66, 1.61) 0.64 (0.42, 0.98) 0.91 (0.57, 1.46) 0.56 (0.37, 0.85) 0.52 (0.33, 0.83) 0.45 (0.29, 0.68)
Maternal parity
  ≥ 1 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
 Nulliparous 1.03 (0.76, 1.41) 1.37 (0.99, 1.90) 1.02 (0.83, 1.26) 1.15 (0.93, 1.43) 1.14 (0.91, 1.42) 1.24 (0.98, 1.56) 0.86 (0.68, 1.07) 1.02 (0.81, 1.28)
Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI
  < 25 kg/m2 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
  ≥ 25 kg/m2 0.72 (0.53, 0.99) 0.65 (0.46, 0.90) 1.02 (0.82, 1.26) 0.77 (0.61, 0.96) 0.81 (0.64, 1.02) 0.57 (0.45, 0.73) 0.79 (0.63, 0.99) 0.69 (0.54, 0.88)
Child characteristics
 Race/ethnicity
  White 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
  Asian 0.64 (0.28, 1.49) 0.42 (0.19, 0.94) 0.84 (0.47, 1.49) 2.63 (1.26, 5.50) 0.71 (0.39, 1.30) 1.53 (0.68, 3.43) 0.89 (0.48, 1.67) 2.04 (0.86, 4.85)
  Black 0.38 (0.26, 0.56) 0.35 (0.23, 0.53) 0.72 (0.53, 0.97) 0.68 (0.49, 0.95) 0.50 (0.37, 0.68) 0.55 (0.39, 0.77) 0.52 (0.38, 0.71) 0.38 (0.27, 0.53)
  Hispanic 0.48 (0.24, 0.94) 0.28 (0.14, 0.55) 1.34 (0.79, 2.27) 0.99 (0.54, 1.80) 0.90 (0.51, 1.59) 0.30 (0.17, 0.53) 0.95 (0.54, 1.66) 0.43 (0.23, 0.79)
  Other 0.48 (0.31, 0.75) 1.04 (0.58, 1.85) 1.04 (0.76, 1.43) 1.04 (0.73, 1.47) 0.94 (0.66, 1.34) 0.80 (0.55, 1.15) 0.92 (0.65, 1.30) 0.49 (0.34, 0.71)