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Table 8 Percentage of individuals who eat foods from each food group by level of home-prepared food

From: Comparison of individuals with low versus high consumption of home-prepared food in a group with universally high dietary quality: a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet & Nutrition Survey (2008–2016)

Food group High DASH OR (95% CI)a p-value
High home preparation Low home preparation All
Reduced fat milk 83.9 94.5 88.1 2.7 (1.5, 4.7) < 0.01
Whole milk 20.3 8.9 15.7 0.5 (0.3, 0.7) < 0.01
Other milk and cream 42.9 32.4 38.7 0.6 (0.4, 0.8) < 0.01
Yogurt, fromage frais and dairy desserts 56.1 65.9 60.0 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) 0.02
Butter 23.1 30.0 25.8 1.6 (1.1, 2.2) 0.02
Reduced fat spread 53.2 65.6 58.2 1.6 (1.1, 2.2) < 0.01
PUFA margarines and oils 12.1 8.0 10.5 0.7 (0.4, 1.3) 0.28
Other margarine, fats and oils 31.0 23.9 28.1 0.7 (0.5, 1.0) 0.08
Cheese 66.1 75.4 69.8 1.4 (1.0, 2.0) 0.06
Eggs and egg dishes 71.2 55.6 65.0 0.5 (0.3, 0.7) < 0.01
Brown bread 79.9 85.0 82.0 1.4 (1.0, 2.2) 0.08
White bread 59.8 65.8 62.2 1.3 (1.0, 1.8) 0.09
Other bread 6.4 11.0 8.2 2.1 (1.1, 3.7) 0.02
High fibre breakfast cereals 56.3 71.1 62.2 1.7 (1.2, 2.3) < 0.01
Other breakfast cereals 23.1 30.0 25.8 1.6 (1.1, 2.2) 0.02
Pasta, rice and other cereals 45.9 48.5 46.9 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) 0.26
Nuts and seeds 48.7 45.0 47.2 0.9 (0.6, 1.2) 0.44
Salad and other raw vegetables 93.4 91.9 92.8 0.8 (0.5, 1.5) 0.55
Vegetables not raw 100.0 98.0 99.2 N/A  
Fruit 98.2 98.2 98.2 0.8 (0.3, 2.4) 0.70
Fruit juice 51.9 53.1 52.4 1.2 (0.8, 1.6) 0.36
Smoothies 100% fruit and/or juice 1.7 2.0 1.9 1.4 (0.4, 4.7) 0.56
Biscuits, chocolate and candy 74.8 84.0 78.3 1.7 (1.2, 2.6) < 0.01
Ice cream 16.9 27.0 21.0 1.8 (1.2, 2.6) < 0.01
Puddings 22.1 20.8 21.6 0.8 (0.6, 1.2) 0.37
Buns, cakes, pastries and fruit pies 47.2 64.1 53.9 1.9 (1.3, 2.6) < 0.01
Sugars, preserves and sweet spreads 75.8 70.5 73.7 0.8 (0.6, 1.2) 0.25
Crisps and savoury snacks 29.4 39.4 33.4 1.6 (1.2, 2.2) < 0.01
Oily fish 42.9 36.8 40.5 0.6 (0.5, 0.9) 0.01
White fish breaded or fried 14.8 20.6 17.1 1.4 (1.0, 2.1) 0.07
Other fish dishes (incl. White fish and shellfish) 46.2 46.8 46.4 0.9 (0.7, 1.3) 0.65
Bacon and ham 3.8 6.0 4.7 2.2 (1.1, 4.4) 0.03
Pork and dishes 13.9 24.4 18.1 1.8 (1.2, 2.6) < 0.01
Sausages 18.7 19.4 19.0 0.9 (0.6, 1.4) 0.78
Beef, veal and dishes 43.8 33.2 39.5 0.6 (0.4, 0.8) < 0.01
Lamb and dishes 16.4 11.4 14.4 0.7 (0.5, 1.1) 0.17
Liver and dishes 6.4 7.7 6.9 1.1 (0.6, 2.1) 0.77
Chicken and turkey dishes 66.1 62.2 64.5 0.8 (0.6, 1.2) 0.31
Coated chicken 3.8 6.0 4.7 2.2 (1.1, 4.4) 0.03
Burgers and kebabs 4.7 4.9 4.8 1.0 (0.4, 2.1) 0.90
Meat pies and pastries 5.9 14.3 9.3 2.4 (1.4, 4.1) < 0.01
Other meat and meat products 45.9 48.5 46.9 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) 0.26
Chips, roasted and fried potatoes 42.7 49.9 45.6 1.3 (0.9, 1.7) 0.14
Other potato dishes 76.4 84.6 79.7 1.4 (0.9, 2.2) 0.13
Artificial sweeteners 11.1 15.6 12.9 1.4 (0.9, 2.1) 0.14
Dietary supplements 36.8 40.7 38.4 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 0.67
Tea, coffee and water 100.0 99.5 99.8 N/A  
Soft drinks low calorie 24.5 33.4 28.0 1.6 (1.1, 2.4) 0.01
Soft drinks not low calorie 24.0 38.1 29.6 2.0 (1.4, 2.9) < 0.01
Beer, lager, cider and perry 22.0 27.5 24.2 1.2 (0.8, 1.8) 0.27
Wine 43.0 43.6 43.2 0.8 (0.6, 1.2) 0.32
Spirits and liqueurs 9.3 16.0 12.0 1.5 (0.9, 2.5) 0.13
Miscellaneous 98.2 94.2 96.6 0.3 (0.1, 0.7) < 0.01
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, children, education, income and occupation
  2. Note: Italics indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05)