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Table 1 Key sample characteristics by age, gender and ethnicity, presented as n (%)

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health across adolescence: evidence from a diverse urban British cohort study

  White British Black Caribbean Black African Indian Pakistani/Bangladeshi All
Males (N = 484) Females (N = 383) Males (N = 344) Females (N = 351) Males (N = 372) Females (N = 446) Males (N = 224) Females (N = 172) Males (N = 310) Females (N = 141) Males (N = 2548) Females (N = 2135)
TDS at 11–13 years [as mean (SD)] 11.3 (5.0) 11.1 (5.1) 10.8 (5.1) 11.4 (5.2) 9.6a (4.6) 11.1 (5.3) 10.6 (5.8) 9.4a (4.6) 10.2a (5.1) 11.3 (5.4) 10.6 (5.1) 11.1 (5.2)
TDS at 14–16 years [as mean (SD)] 10.3b (4.6) 11.4 (4.9) 9.6a/b (4.6) 11.0 (4.9) 9.0a (4.5) 10.9 (4.9) 9.7 (5.2) 9.7a (4.5) 9.5a (4.5) 11.0 (5.0) 9.7b (4.6) 11.1 (4.9)
TDS > 17 at 11–13 years 55 (11.4) 45 (11.8) 32 (9.3) 44 (12.5) 22 (5.9a) 52 (11.7) 30 (13.4) 11 (6.4) 26 (8.4) 17 (12.1) 246 (9.7) 252 (11.8)
TDS > 17 at 14–16 years 33 (6.8) 41 (10.7) 20 (5.8) 36 (10.3) 15 (4.0) 48 (10.8) 15 (6.7) 8 (4.7a) 13 (4.2) 18 (12.8) 147 (5.8) 224 (10.5)
Fruit and vegetable consumption at 11–13 years
  ≥ 5 portions/day 166 (34.3) 118 (30.8) 98 (28.5) 96 (27.4) 90 (24.2a) 106 (23.8a) 87 (38.8) 62 (36.1) 78 (25.2a) 39 (27.7) 801 (31.4) 632 (29.6)
 1–4 portions/day 189 (39.1) 156 (40.7) 123 (35.8) 132 (37.6) 125 (33.6) 145 (32.5a) 76 (33.9) 66 (38.4) 109 (35.2) 57 (40.4) 882 (34.6) 785 (36.8)
  < 1 portion/day 87 (18.0) 84 (21.9) 58 (16.9) 96 (27.4) 89 (23.9a) 128 (28.7a) 28 (12.5) 23 (13.4a) 79 (25.5a) 28 (19.9) 476 (18.7) 473 (22.2)
 Not stated 42 (8.7) 25 (6.5) 65 (18.9a) 27 (7.7) 68 (18.3a) 67 (15.0a) 33 (14.7a) 21 (12.2a) 44 (14.2a) 17 (12.1a) 389 (15.3) 245 (11.5)
Fruit and vegetable consumption at 14–16 years
  ≥ 5 portions/day 178 (36.8) 151 (39.4) 93 (27.0a) 95 (27.1a) 92 (24.7a) 105 (23.5a) 80 (35.7) 65 (37.8) 73 (23.6a) 36 (25.5a) 778 (30.5) 693 (32.5)
 1–4 portions/day 216 (44.6) 149 (38.9) 138 (40.1) 127 (36.2) 145 (39.0) 169 (37.9) 113 (50.5b) 80 (46.5) 137 (44.2) 58 (41.1) 1100 (43.2) 823 (38.6)
  < 1 portion/day 89 (18.4) 80 (20.9) 110 (32.0a/b) 127 (36.2a) 134 (36.0a/b) 171 (38.3a/b) 30 (13.4) 27 (15.7) 97 (31.3a) 47 (33.3a) 659 (25.9) 610 (28.6)
 Not stated 1 (0.2b) 3 (0.8b) 3 (0.9b) 2 (0.6b) 1 (0.3b) 1 (0.2b) 1 (0.4b) 0a/b 3 (1.0b) 0a/b 11 (0.4) 9 (0.4)
Parental care at 11–13 years
 High 181 (37.4) 168 (43.9) 129 (37.5) 137 (39.0) 134 (36.0) 149 (33.4a) 92 (41.1) 67 (39.0) 121 (39.0) 54 (38.3) 977 (38.3) 805 (37.7)
 Medium 163 (33.7) 120 (31.3) 80 (23.3a) 85 (24.2) 91 (24.5a) 121 (27.1) 54 (24.1) 52 (30.2) 91 (29.4) 39 (27.7) 697 (27.4) 605 (28.3)
 Low 125 (25.8) 83 (21.7) 105 (30.5) 105 (29.9) 117 (31.5) 149 (33.4a) 66 (29.5) 49 (28.5) 88 (28.4) 44 (31.2) 722 (28.3) 612 (28.7)
 Not stated 15 (3.1) 12 (3.1) 30 (8.7a) 24 (6.8) 30 (8.1a) 27 (6.1) 12 (5.4) 4 (2.3) 10 (3.2) 4 (2.8) 152 (6.0) 113 (5.3)
Parental care at 14–16 years
 High 124 (25.6b) 93 (24.3b) 81 (23.6b) 55 (15.7a/b) 85 (22.8b) 73 (16.4a/b) 67 (29.9) 43 (25.0) 88 (28.4) 37 (26.2) 653 (25.6) 434 (20.3)
 Medium 141 (29.1) 111 (29.0) 92 (26.7) 97 (27.6) 101 (27.2) 106 (23.8) 71 (31.7) 48 (27.9) 87 (28.1) 30 (21.3) 738 (29.0) 544 (25.5)
 Low 217 (44.8b) 175 (45.7b) 165 (48.0b) 196 (55.8b) 177 (47.6b) 260 (58.3a/b) 85 (38.0) 80 (46.5b) 131 (42.3b) 73 (51.8b) 1126 (44.2) 1134 (53.1)
 Not stated 2 (0.4b) 4 (1.0) 6 (1.7b) 3 (0.9b) 9 (2.4b) 7 (1.6b) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.6) 4 (1.3) 1 (0.7) 31 (1.2) 23 (1.1)
Paternal control at 11–13 years
 Low 169 (34.9) 163 (42.6) 109 (31.7) 80 (22.8a) 75 (20.2a) 86 (19.3a) 51 (22.8a) 38 (22.1a) 55 (17.7a) 31 (22.0a) 658 (25.8) 551 (25.8)
 Medium 193 (39.9) 142 (37.1) 109 (31.7) 125 (35.6) 130 (35.0) 152 (34.1) 75 (33.5) 70 (40.7) 122 (39.4) 47 (33.3) 941 (36.9) 760 (35.6)
 High 104 (21.5) 68 (17.8) 97 (28.2) 126 (35.9a) 137 (36.8a) 178 (39.9a) 86 (38.4a) 59 (34.3a) 123 (39.7a) 60 (42.6a) 787 (30.9) 710 (33.3)
 Not stated 18 (3.7) 10 (2.6) 29 (8.4a) 20 (5.7) 30 (8.1) 30 (6.7) 12 (5.4) 5 (2.9) 10 (3.2) 3 (2.1) 162 (6.4) 114 (5.3)
Paternal control at 14–16 years
 Low 217 (44.8b) 166 (43.3) 114 (33.1a) 91 (25.9a) 91 (24.5a) 102 (22.9a) 65 (29.0a) 38 (22.1a) 69 (22.3a) 30 (21.3a) 818 (32.1) 591 (27.7)
 Medium 170 (35.1) 113 (29.5) 117 (34.0) 109 (31.1) 138 (37.1) 128 (28.7) 78 (34.8) 56 (32.6) 122 (39.4) 43 (30.5) 915 (35.9) 658 (30.8)
 High 95 (19.6) 99 (25.8) 106 (30.8a) 148 (42.2a) 132 (35.5a) 208 (46.6a) 79 (35.3a) 78 (45.3a) 115 (37.1a) 68 (48.2a) 782 (30.7) 863 (40.4)
 Not stated 2 (0.4b) 5 (1.3) 7 (2.0b) 3 (0.9b) 11 (3.0a/b) 8 (1.8b) 2 (0.9) 0a/b 4 (1.3) 0a/b 33 (1.3) 23 (1.1)
Family affluence at 11–13 years
 High 306 (63.2) 243 (63.4) 169 (49.1a) 153 (43.6a) 196 (52.7a) 232 (52.0a) 124 (55.4) 90 (52.3) 175 (56.5) 55 (39.0a) 1382 (54.2) 1081 (50.6)
 Medium 114 (23.6) 93 (24.3) 98 (28.5) 123 (35.0a) 95 (25.5) 136 (30.5) 52 (23.2) 53 (30.8) 82 (26.5) 61 (43.3a) 672 (26.4) 673 (31.5)
 Low 21 (4.3) 16 (4.2) 15 (4.4) 21 (6.0) 11 (3.0) 12 (2.7) 5 (2.2) 3 (1.7) 10 (3.2) 5 (3.5) 101 (4.0) 88 (4.1)
 Not stated 43 (8.9) 31 (8.1) 62 (18.0a) 54 (15.4a) 70 (18.8a) 66 (14.8a) 43 (19.2a) 26 (15.1a) 43 (13.9a) 20 (14.2a) 393 (15.4) 293 (13.7)
Family affluence at 14–16 years
 High 341 (70.5) 272 (71.0) 210 (61.0a/b) 202 (57.5a/b) 252 (67.7b) 281 (63.0b) 161 (71.9b) 123 (71.5b) 228 (73.5b) 81 (57.4a/b) 1722 (67.6) 1347 (63.1)
 Medium 123 (25.4) 92 (24.0) 106 (30.8) 130 (37.0a) 99 (26.6) 149 (33.4a) 52 (23.2) 44 (25.6) 72 (23.2) 56 (39.7a) 702 (27.6) 691 (32.4)
 Low 10 (2.1) 6 (1.6) 12 (3.5) 12 (3.4) 5 (1.3) 3 (0.7) 3 (1.3) 0a/b 3 (1.0) 0a/b 45 (1.8) 36 (1.7)
 Not stated 10 (2.1b) 13 (3.4) 16 (4.7b) 7 (2.0b) 16 (4.3b) 13 (2.9b) 8 (3.6a) 5 (2.9b) 7 (2.3b) 4 (2.8b) 79 (3.1) 61 (2.9)
  1. TDS Total Difficulties Score
  2. aIndicates differences compared with White British within the same age and gender group
  3. bIndicates differences compared with 11–13 years within the same gender and ethnic group