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Table 2 The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and total difficulties score from 11 to 13 years to 14–16 years

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health across adolescence: evidence from a diverse urban British cohort study

  Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d Model 5e
Coef (95% CI) P Coef (95% CI) P Coef (95% CI) P Coef (95% CI) P Coef (95% CI) P
Fixed effects
Fruit and vegetable consumption (ref: ≥5 portions/day)
 1–4 portions/day 0.22 (0.00, 0.44) 0.054 0.26 (0.04, 0.49) 0.019 0.27 (0.05, 0.49) 0.016 0.13 (−0.09, 0.34) 0.242 0.13 (− 0.09, 0.34) 0.253
  < 1 portion/day 0.77 (0.51, 1.03) < 0.001 0.85 (0.58, 1.11) < 0.001 0.81 (0.54, 1.07) < 0.001 0.56 (0.30, 0.81) < 0.001 0.55 (0.29, 0.81) < 0.001
 Not stated 0.91 (0.54, 1.28) < 0.001 0.61 (0.22, 0.99) 0.002 −0.15 (−0.85, 0.55) 0.672 −0.40 (−1.09, 0.29) 0.254 −0.40 (−1.08, 0.28) 0.248
Age    −0.18 (− 0.23, − 0.12) < 0.001 −0.28 (− 0.34, − 0.21) < 0.001 −0.34 (− 0.41, − 0.27) < 0.001 −0.34 (− 0.41, − 0.27) < 0.001
Gender (ref: male)
 Female    0.90 (0.64, 1.16) < 0.001 0.49 (0.23, 0.75) < 0.001 0.34 (0.09, 0.59) 0.007 0.34 (0.09, 0.58) 0.007
Ethnicity (ref: White British)
 Black Caribbean    −0.38 (−0.81, 0.05) 0.083 −0.17 (− 0.59, 0.25) 0.425 − 0.43 (− 0.83, − 0.03) 0.037 −0.42 (− 0.82, − 0.02) 0.039
 Black African    −0.97 (−1.39, − 0.55) < 0.001 −0.53 (− 0.94, − 0.11) 0.013 −0.71 (− 1.12, − 0.30) 0.001 −0.68 (− 1.08, − 0.28) 0.001
 Indian    −0.96 (− 1.48, − 0.44) < 0.001 −0.67 (− 1.20, − 0.14) 0.014 −0.73 (− 1.24, − 0.21) 0.005 −0.62 (−1.12, − 0.13) 0.014
 Pakistani/Bangladeshi    −0.74 (−1.23, − 0.24) 0.004 −0.41 (− 0.93, 0.12) 0.133 −0.63 (− 1.14, − 0.12) 0.015 −0.50 (− 0.98, 0.02) 0.043
Parental care (ref: high)
 Medium        0.64 (0.41, 0.87) < 0.001 0.63 (0.41, 0.86) < 0.001
 Low        1.45 (1.21, 1.69) < 0.001 1.45 (1.20, 1.69) < 0.001
 Not stated        0.39 (−0.49, 1.28) 0.382 0.40 (−0.48, 1.29) 0.375
Parental control (ref: low)
 Medium        0.41 (0.19, 0.64) < 0.001 0.42 (0.19, 0.64) < 0.001
 High        1.67 (1.42, 1.91) < 0.001 1.67 (1.43, 1.92) < 0.001
 Not stated        1.46 (0.58, 2.34) 0.001 1.47 (0.59, 2.34) 0.001
Family affluence (ref: high)
 Medium        0.09 (−0.12, 0.30) 0.393 0.09 (−0.12, 0.30) 0.403
 Low        0.73 (0.18, 1.28) 0.009 0.73 (0.18, 1.27) 0.009
 Not stated        −0.14 (−0.51, 0.23) 0.457 −0.14 (− 0.51, 0.23) 0.455
Constant 10.27 (10.04, 10.49) < 0.001 10.28 (9.93, 10.63) < 0.001 9.19 (8.80, 9.59) < 0.001 7.71 (7.29, 8.14) < 0.001 7.75 (7.33, 8.17) < 0.001
Random effects
Level 3 (school)
 Intercept 0.21 (0.10, 0.45)   0.10 (0.04, 0.31)   0.09 (0.03, 0.28)   0.07 (0.02, 0.26)   0.07 (0.02, 0.25)  
Level 2 (individual)
 Intercept 11.41 (10.66, 12.20)   11.21 (10.48, 12.00)   10.39 (9.68, 11.14)   8.88 (8.24, 9.58)   8.89 (8.24, 9.58)  
Residue 12.79 (12.29, 13.32)   12.70 (12.19, 13.22)   12.49 (11.99, 13.01)   12.14 (11.66, 12.65)   12.15 (11.66, 12.66)  
  1. aModel 1: coefficients were estimated with linear-mixed models with random intercept, without any adjustments
  2. bModel 2: same as model 1 + adjustments for age, gender and ethnicity
  3. cModel 3: same as model 2 + adjustments for physical activity, current smoking, current alcohol consumption, special diet and diet-related anxiety
  4. dModel 4: same as model 3 + adjustments for paternal smoking, maternal smoking, paternal overweight, maternal overweight, parental care, parental control and family affluence
  5. eModel 5: based on Wald tests of variables in model 4, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, physical activity, current smoking, current alcohol consumption, diet-related anxiety, paternal smoking, maternal smoking, paternal overweight, maternal overweight, parental care, parental control and family affluence