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Table 3 The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and probable clinical cases (total difficulties score > 17) from 11 to 13 years to 14–16 years

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health across adolescence: evidence from a diverse urban British cohort study

  Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d Model 5e
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Fixed effects
Fruit and vegetable consumption (ref: ≥5 portions/day)
  1–4 portions/day 1.08 (0.86, 1.35) 0.498 1.12 (0.90–1.41) 0.315 1.14 (0.91–1.42) 0.271 1.06 (0.84–1.33) 0.631 1.06 (0.85–1.34) 0.595
   < 1 portion/day 1.51 (1.18, 1.94) 0.001 1.62 (1.26–2.09) < 0.001 1.62 (1.25–2.09) < 0.001 1.42 (1.10–1.84) 0.008 1.43 (1.11–1.85) 0.007
  Not stated 1.74 (1.22, 2.47) 0.002 1.44 (1.00–2.07) 0.049 1.80 (0.92–3.51) 0.084 1.69 (0.86–3.34) 0.130 1.72 (0.88–3.38) 0.112
Age    0.85 (0.80–0.90) < 0.001 0.81 (0.76–0.88) < 0.001 0.78 (0.73–0.85) < 0.001 0.78 (0.73–0.84) < 0.001
 Gender (ref: male)
 Female    1.70 (1.38–2.09) < 0.001 1.36 (1.10–1.67) 0.004 1.26 (1.02–1.55) 0.034 1.26 (1.02–1.56) 0.029
Ethnicity (ref: White British)
 Black Caribbean    0.85 (0.60–1.21) 0.370 0.96 (0.68–1.35) 0.793 0.78 (0.55–1.11) 0.171 0.77 (0.54–1.09) 0.144
 Black African    0.68 (0.48–0.96) 0.026 0.78 (0.55–1.11) 0.167 0.67 (0.46–0.96) 0.030 0.63 (0.44–0.90) 0.011
 Indian    0.75 (0.49–1.15) 0.189 0.73 (0.46–1.14) 0.161 0.68 (0.43–1.07) 0.098 0.64 (0.41–1.01) 0.053
 Pakistani/Bangladeshi    0.76 (0.50–1.14) 0.186 0.68 (0.43–1.06) 0.091 0.57 (0.36–0.89) 0.015 0.54 (0.34–0.84) 0.007
Parental care (ref: high)
 Medium        1.23 (0.94–1.60) 0.129 1.22 (0.94–1.59) 0.140
 Low        2.07 (1.60–2.68) < 0.001 2.07 (1.60–2.67) < 0.001
 Not stated        0.82 (0.34–2.02) 0.673 0.81 (0.33–1.97) 0.637
Parental control (ref: low)
 Medium        1.01 (0.77–1.32) 0.961 1.00 (0.77–1.31) 0.984
 High        2.54 (1.96–3.30) < 0.001 2.54 (1.95–3.29) < 0.001
 Not stated        2.65 (1.14–6.16) 0.024 2.62 (1.13–6.08) 0.025
Family affluence (ref: high)
 Medium        1.17 (0.95–1.45) 0.138   
 Low        1.15 (0.69–1.93) 0.583   
 Not stated        1.05 (0.73–1.53) 0.783   
Constant 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) < 0.001 0.027 (0.019, 0.039) < 0.001 0.018 (0.012, 0.027) < 0.001 0.008 (0.005, 0.014) < 0.001 0.009 (0.006, 0.015) < 0.001
Random effects
Level 3 (school)
 Intercept 0.01 (0.00, 10.43)   0.000   0.000   0.000   0.000  
Level 3 (school) > Level 2 (individual)
 Intercept 3.13 (2.42, 4.07)   3.04 (2.34, 3.95)   2.68 (2.04, 3.51)   2.48 (1.87, 3.29)   2.48 (1.87, 3.29)  
  1. aModel 1: odds ratios were estimated with mixed-effects logistic regression with random intercept, without any adjustments
  2. bModel 2: same as model 1 + adjustments for age, gender and ethnicity
  3. cModel 3: same as model 2 + adjustments for physical activity, current smoking, current alcohol consumption, special diet and diet-related anxiety
  4. dModel 4: same as model 3 + adjustments for paternal smoking, maternal smoking, paternal overweight, maternal overweight, parental care, parental control and family affluence
  5. eModel 5: based on Wald tests of variables in model 4, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, physical activity, current smoking, current alcohol consumption, special diet, diet-related anxiety, paternal smoking, paternal overweight, maternal overweight, parental care and parental control