Skip to main content

Table 4 Meta-analysis results- effect sizes and heterogeneity

From: The effects of yoga compared to active and inactive controls on physical function and health related quality of life in older adults- systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Outcome No. of studies Total number of participants Effect size Heterogeneity
Hedges’ g (95% CI) P-value I2 P-value
Physical function - Yoga vs inactive controls
 Balance 7 265 0.70 (0.19 to 1.22) 0.01 72.15 0.001
 Body composition 4 314 0.16 (−0.06 to 0.38) 0.16 0.00 0.91
 Lower body flexibility 7 431 0.50 (0.3 to 0.69) < 0.001 0.00 0.88
 Lower limb strength 7 485 0.45 (0.22 to 0.68) < 0.001 32.70 0.17
 Upper body flexibility 4 166 0.28 (−0.02 to 0.58) 0.07 0.00 0.87
 Walking speed 5 377 0.38 (−0.02 to 0.78) 0.06 72.69 0.003
Physical function - Yoga vs active controls
 Balance 5 264 0.32 (−0.02 to 0.66) 0.07 34.74 0.18
 Lower body flexibility 3 225 0.28 (0.01 to 0.54) 0.04 0.00 0.59
 Lower limb strength 3 225 0.49 (0.1 to 0.88) 0.01 47.44 0.15
 Mobility 3 173 0.31 (−0.25 to 0.87) 0.28 58.73 0.06
 Walking speed 3 192 −0.29 (− 0.79 to 0.22) 0.26 57.41 0.07
HRQoL - Yoga vs inactive controls
 Depression 8 450 0.64 (0.32 to 0.95) < 0.001 57.09 0.02
 Fear of falls 3 104 0.39 (−0.45 to 1.24) 0.36 75.64 0.02
 Perceived mental health 9 554 0.6 (0.33 to 0.87) < 0.001 54.87 0.02
 Perceived physical health 5 400 0.61 (0.29 to 0.94) < 0.001 58.55 0.05
 Sleep quality 4 353 0.65 (0.41 to 0.88) < 0.001 13.06 0.33
 Social health 3 225 0.27 (−0.15 to 0.69) 0.2 51.76 0.13
 Vitality 3 196 0.31 (0.03 to 0.59) 0.03 0.00 0.83
HRQoL - Yoga vs active controls
 Anxiety 3 206 0.43 (−0.03 to 0.88) 0.06 50.03 0.11
 Depression 4 215 0.54 (0.25 to 0.83) < 0.001 8.61 0.36
 Perceived mental health 3 183 0.26 (−0.03 to 0.55) 0.08 0.00 0.81
  1. CI: Confidence interval; Significant effect sizes (95% CI) and corresponding p values have been highlighted in bold