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Table 5 Comparison of effect sizes from previous reviews and the current review

From: The effects of yoga compared to active and inactive controls on physical function and health related quality of life in older adults- systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Outcome Study Effect size in comparator review Effect size present review Notes
Balance Youkhana et al. (2016) Hedges’ g = 0.40, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.65. I2 = 0.00%, p = 0.615 Inactive controls: Hedges’ g = 0.70, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.22. I2 = 72.15, p = 0.001 Larger effect size in current review may be attributed to inclusion of a RCT [76] which recruited participants with poor balance at baseline.
Mobility Youkhana et al. (2016) Hedges’ g = 0.50, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.95. I2 = 51.8%, p = 0.126 Inactive controls: No meta-analysis for mobility Mobility assessed by timed-up-and-go test in the current review (measured by only 2 studies). Mobility measured in Youkhana et al. (2016) by three studies using the timed-eight-foot-walk, sit-to-stand test and the 4-m-walk.
Perceived mental health Tulloch et al. (2018) Hedges’ g = 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.62. I2 = 56.3%, p = 0.009 Inactive controls: Hedges’ g = 0.6, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.87. I2 = 54.87, p = 0.02 Larger effect size in current review may be attributed to differences in inclusion criteria, differing search strategies, and search dates.
Patel et al. (2012) SMD = 0.66, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.22. I2 = 77% Comparable effect size.
Perceived physical health Tulloch et al. (2018) Hedges’ g = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.76. I2 = 62.9%, p = 0.002 Inactive controls: Hedges’ g = 0.61, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.94. I2 = 58.55, p = 0.05 Larger effect size in current study may be attributed to differences in inclusion criteria, differing search strategies, and search dates.
Patel et al. (2012) SMD = 0.65, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.28. I2 = 82% Comparable effect size.
Depression Patel et al. (2012) SMD = − 0.57, 95% CI - 1.17 to 0.04. I2 = 80%
(The negative effect size here indicates that yoga reduces depression scores to a greater extent than comparison groups)
Inactive controls: Hedges’ g = .64, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.95. I2 = 57.09, p = 0.02 Inclusion of more RCTs may have increased the power to detect differences between groups, producing significant effects favouring the yoga group in the current study.
  1. SMD: Standardised Mean Difference, CI: Confidence Interval, RCT: Randomised Controlled Trial