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Table 2 The impact of dental status on perceived ability to eat various food types

From: The impact of dental status on perceived ability to eat certain foods and nutrient intakes in older adults: cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008–2014

Food type Dental status Could eat with some difficulty/could not eat at all   Unadjusted   Adjusteda
   n % OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P
Sliced bread DEN 5 1.1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 3 1.0 0.90 0.21, 3.79 0.885 0.78 0.18, 3.32 0.740
E-DEN 9 3.1 2.87 0.95, 8.65 0.061 2.22 0.70, 7.04 0.174
Crusty bread DEN 37 8.1 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 61 20.0 2.83 1.83, 4.39 < 0.001 2.57 1.65, 4.01 < 0.001
E-DEN 72 24.8 3.74 2.44, 5.74 < 0.001 3.05 1.96, 4.77 < 0.001
Cheese DEN 7 1.5 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 10 3.3 2.17 0.82, 5.78 0.119 2.07 0.78, 5.55 0.146
E-DEN 11 3.8 2.52 0.97, 6.58 0.059 2.24 0.83, 6.05 0.113
Tomatoes DEN 8 1.8 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 10 3.3 1.90 0.74, 4.87 0.182 1.81 0.70, 4.65 0.221
E-DEN 24 8.2 5.03 2.23, 11.37 < 0.001 4.62 1.99, 10.71 < 0.001
Raw carrots DEN 49 10.7 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 89 29.3 3.44 2.34, 5.06 < 0.001 3.30 2.23, 4.87 < 0.001
E-DEN 117 40.8 5.72 3.92, 8.35 < 0.001 5.04 3.41, 7.45 < 0.001
Lettuce DEN 6 1.3 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 18 5.9 4.70 1.85, 11.99 0.001 4.57 1.79, 11.70 0.002
E-DEN 23 7.9 6.41 2.58, 15.95 < 0.001 5.99 2.35, 15.21 < 0.001
Apples DEN 51 11.2 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 92 30.2 3.43 2.35, 5.02 < 0.001 3.31 2.26, 4.87 < 0.001
E-DEN 121 41.4 5.62 3.87, 8.16 < 0.001 5.25 3.57, 7.73 < 0.001
Oranges DEN 9 2.0 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 13 4.3 2.21 0.93, 5.24 0.071 2.09 0.88, 4.97 0.096
E-DEN 26 8.9 4.87 2.25, 10.56 < 0.001 4.35 1.96, 9.66 < 0.001
Nuts DEN 53 11.6 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 82 26.9 2.79 1.90, 4.09 < 0.001 2.63 1.79, 3.87 < 0.001
E-DEN 104 35.7 4.22 2.90, 6.13 < 0.001 3.65 2.48, 5.38 < 0.001
Sliced cooked meats DEN 8 1.8 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 13 4.3 2.50 1.02, 6.11 0.044 2.23 0.91, 5.48 0.081
E-DEN 11 3.8 2.19 0.87, 5.52 0.096 1.79 0.69, 4.65 0.234
Well-cooked steaks DEN 50 11.0 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
D-DEN 88 29.0 3.32 2.26, 4.87 < 0.001 3.07 2.08, 4.54 < 0.001
E-DEN 103 35.5 4.46 3.05, 6.52 < 0.001 3.81 2.57, 5.65 < 0.001
  1. Data analysed using logistic regression and presented as odd ratios (95% CI). DEN group was fixed as the reference category in each model. aAdjusted for age, gender and survey year