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Table 2 Families Improving Together for Weight Loss Theoretical Essential Elements

From: Secondary benefits of the families improving together (FIT) for weight loss trial on cognitive and social factors in African American adolescents

Theory Essential Element Description
SCT Self-Monitoring Parents and adolescents monitor their caloric intake, energy expenditure, and weight, using a tool of their choice.
SCT Goal Setting Parents and adolescents set specific weight-loss goals together weekly, including intake, expenditure, and sedentary behavior goals.
SCT Self-Regulation Skills Parents and adolescents learn to identify personal barriers, substitute healthier alternatives, and provide positive reinforcements.
SDT & FST Communication Skills Parents and adolescents use positive communication strategies, including reflective listening, problem-solving, and shared decision-making, to discuss weight-loss behaviors.
FST Parental Monitoring and Limit Setting Parents monitor and track adolescent self-monitoring and goals, set limits with adolescents around weight loss behaviors, and monitor implementation of family rules and rewards for adhering to weight-loss behaviors.
SCT, SDT, & FST Social Support Adolescents use strategies for eliciting social support for weight-loss behaviors from parents. Parents provide adolescents with social support for weight-loss behaviors.
SDT Autonomy Support Adolescents have choices and are provided with opportunities to give input. Parents seek input from adolescents and negotiate rules and behavior changes together. Families engage in shared decision-making.
SCT Self-Efficacy Adolescents and parents have opportunities to practice and successfully master weight loss strategies.
SDT Motivation Families provide input and build confidence in changing adolescent weight-loss behaviors.
Cultural Tailoring Adaptation to Cultural Issues Families develop action plans for resolving cultural barriers to weight loss and parenting skill development as appropriate.