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Table 4 Change in the proportion of snacks and beverages in vending machines by intervention group in the Eat, Play, Live trial

From: Eat, play, live: a randomized controlled trial within a natural experiment examining the role of nutrition policy and capacity building in improving food environments in recreation and sport facilities

  n Mean % (SD) Intervention effecta
Baseline Follow-up F p value
Beverages
 Do Not Sell
  GL + CBI 16 59.1 (17.2) 51.8 (20.1) 0.667 0.52
  GL-ONLY 12 71.7 (14.1) 64.8 (20.5)
  NO-GL 17 80.8 (10.2) 79.2 (14.4)
 Sell Sometimes
  GL + CBI 16 21.4 (12.7) 24.9 (16.2) 0.043 0.96
  GL-ONLY 12 14.6 (12.6) 18.7 (13.2)
  NO-GL 17 10.8 (4.4) 13.4 (9.2)
 Sell Most
  GL + CBI 16 19.4 (11.9) 23.3 (11.3) 1.596 0.22
  GL-ONLY 12 13.7 (7.4) 16.5 (11.3)
  NO-GL 17 8.5 (9.8) 7.4 (9.1)
Snacks
 Do Not Sell
  GL + CBI 14 74.0 (16.6) 45.2 (20.1) 15.629 < 0.001b
  GL-ONLY 10 80.0 (22.4) 81.0 (22.1)
  NO-GL 12 91.1 (8.8) 90.6 (6.3)
 Sell Sometimes
  GL + CBI 14 22.4 (14.4) 43.8 (15.8) 15.529 < 0.001b
  GL-ONLY 10 15.0 (15.2) 15.2 (16.6)
  NO-GL 12 6.0 (6.3) 6.7 (5.1)
 Sell Most
  GL + CBI 14 3.7 (4.4) 11.0 (9.0) 4.310 0.002c
  GL-ONLY 10 4.9 (8.3) 3.8 (6.5)
  NO-GL 12 2.8 (3.4) 2.7 (4.7)
  1. GL + CBI guideline + capacity building intervention facilities, GL-ONLY guideline only facilities, NO-GL no guideline facilities
  2. A total of 83 beverage (52% of all beverage machines; n = 2110 products) and 58 snack vending machines (78% of all snack machines; n = 1983 products) were audited at baseline. A total of 79 beverage (54% of all beverage machines; n = 2106 products) and 59 snack vending machines (80% of all snack machines; n = 2067 products) were audited at follow-up
  3. aThe intervention effect is the p value for the interaction of time by condition from repeated measures ANOVA
  4. bSignificant pairwise differences between GL + CBI and GL-ONLY (p < 0.01); and between GL + CBI and NO-GL (p < 0.001)
  5. cNon-significant trend toward pairwise differences between GL + CBI and NO-GL (p = 0.08)