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Table 5 Change in the proportion of packaged snacks and beverages and in the overall quality of the concession food environment by intervention group in the Eat, Play, Live trial

From: Eat, play, live: a randomized controlled trial within a natural experiment examining the role of nutrition policy and capacity building in improving food environments in recreation and sport facilities

  n Mean % (SD) Intervention effecta
Baseline Follow-up F p value
Packaged beverages
 Do Not Sell
  GL + CBI 9 73.1 (9.4) 74.2 (9.5) 0.478 0.62
  GL-ONLY 11 71.8 (13.6) 73.7 (9.8)
  NO-GL 16 80.3 (9.2) 85.3 (8.4)
 Sell Sometimes
  GL + CBI 9 19.0 (10.6) 20.3 (10.7) 0.895 0.42
  GL-ONLY 11 20.6 (15.9) 18.2 (11.2)
  NO-GL 16 16.6 (8.4) 11.8 (6.9)
 Sell Most
  GL + CBI 9 7.9 (3.5) 5.5 (2.9) 1.805 0.18
  GL-ONLY 11 7.6 (6.5) 8.1 (8.8)
  NO-GL 16 3.2 (3.3) 2.9 (3.9)
Packaged snacks
 Do Not Sell
  GL + CBI 7 83.4 (18.3) 69.1 (21.6) 1.550 0.23
  GL-ONLY 11 74.9 (25.6) 78.0 (12.4)
  NO-GL 16 93.6 (7.1) 93.7 (9.3)
 Sell Sometimes
  GL + CBI 7 15.1 (17.8) 26.5 (16.9) 1.213 0.31
  GL-ONLY 11 21.0 (27.4) 17.9 (9.8)
  NO-GL 16 5.6 (6.3) 5.4 (9.2)
 Sell Most
  GL + CBI 7 1.5 (2.6) 4.4 (10.2) 0.529 0.59
  GL-ONLY 11 4.1 (6.1) 4.1 (5.5)
  NO-GL 16 0.8 (1.8) 0.9 (2.1)
rNEMS-R Scoresa
  Mean (SD) [% ideal] Intervention effectb
 Fast casual score   Baseline Follow-up F p value
  GL + CBI 11 15.5 (9.0) 17.7 (6.7) 2.675 0.08
[37.3%] [41.5%]
  GL-ONLY 11 15.5 (8.0) 13.2 (5.3)
[37.3%] [32.9%]
  NO-GL 16 8.4 (3.5) 7.3 (3.8)
[23.8%] [21.6%]
Fast food score
 GL + CBI 11 14.7 (8.4) 17.5 (7.2) 10.958 < 0.001c
[40.4%] [45.0%]
 GL-ONLY 11 14.8 (6.5) 14.1 (5.1)
[40.6%] [39.4%]
 NO-GL 16 9.2 (4.3) 4.0 (4.4)
[31.5%] [23.0%]
  1. GL + CBI guideline + capacity building intervention facilities, GL-ONLY guideline only facilities, NO-GL no guideline facilities, rNEMS-R Nutrition Environment Measures Survey–Restaurant reduced item audit
  2. A total of 40 concessions were audited at baseline and 38 concessions were audited at follow-up. 8 facilities did not have a concession, 1 could not be audited at baseline or follow-up and 2 concessions closed between baseline and follow-up. In addition, 1 concession no longer sold packaged beverages and 2 no longer sold packaged snacks at follow-up. A total of 756 packaged beverages and 772 packaged snacks were audited at follow-up
  3. aHigher scores (possible range for fast casual: - 4.02 to + 48.27; fast food: −10.17 to + 51.35) indicate greater availability, supports for, and lower cost of healthy options
  4. bThe intervention effect is the p value for the interaction of time by condition from repeated measures ANOVA
  5. cSignificant pairwise differences between GL + CBI and NO-GL (p < 0.001); and between GL-ONLY and NO-GL (p < 0.01)