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Table 3 Descriptive characteristics of participating customers in intercept surveys, Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, 2014–2017 (n = 3,039)

From: Evaluation of the first U.S. staple foods ordinance: impact on nutritional quality of food store offerings, customer purchases and home food environments

  Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4
  Pre-policy change, 2014 Implementation only, no enforcement, 2015 Early initiation of enforcement, 2016 Continued monitoring, 2017
  Minneapolis (n = 352) St. Paul (n = 316) Minneapolis (n = 451) St. Paul (n = 316) Minneapolis (n = 378) St. Paul (n = 425) Minneapolis (n = 454) St. Paul (n = 347)
  Mean (SD)
Age (years) 39 (15) 42 (15) 37 (14) 39 (14) 39 (14) 38 (14) 39 (15) 42 (15)
  Percent
Sex: male 60 52 57 54 59 56 63 53
Race/ethnicity
 Hispanic 3 4 5 8 5 8 4 3
 Non-Hispanic         
 White 48 45 40 41 38 41 34 42
 Black 34 38 37 36 40 36 40 38
 American Indian/Alaskan Native 5 3 5 3 7 3 6 2
 Asian 3 4 4 3 2 5 3 2
 Other race 4 4 4 3 5 4 6 6
 Multi-race 3 4 4 6 3 4 7 7
Education
 High school diploma or less 37 39 37 34 40 41 39 38
 Some college 37 35 37 43 37 35 38 40
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 26 25 26 23 23 24 24 22
Employment
 Employed 62 65 67 73 65 72 64 67
 Unemployed/disability 28 23 20 13 25 18 21 21
 Other (student, retired) 10 11 13 14 10 10 15 12
Frequency of shopping at store
 Less than once a week 25 29 26 24 27 27 25 27
 1–6 times a week 45 43 44 47 42 45 41 41
 At least once a day 30 28 30 28 31 28 33 32
Weight status
 Overweight (BMI ≥ 25, < 30 kg/m2) 30 31 34 34 31 29 38 35
 Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 32 33 26 34 29 39 30 37
  1. Note: Bold text indicates significant chi-square test (p < .05) between cities within time point
  2. Note: Number of missing values (if any) for each variable for each time point: Time 1: age = 2, sex = 3, race/ethnicity = 3, education = 2, employment = 1, frequency of shopping at store = 1, weight status = 22; Time 2: age = 12, sex = 5, race/ethnicity = 5, education = 7, employment = 7, frequency of shopping at store = 3, weight status = 23; Time 3: age = 10, sex = 3, race/ethnicity = 8, education = 4, employment = 6, weight status = 37; Time 4: age = 12, sex = 1, race/ethnicity = 9, education = 5, employment = 4, frequency of shopping at store = 4, weight status = 34