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Table 4 Impact of the Minneapolis Staple Foods Ordinance over time on healthy food availability in stores, 2014–2017 (n = 155 stores)

From: Evaluation of the first U.S. staple foods ordinance: impact on nutritional quality of food store offerings, customer purchases and home food environments

Outcome City      Overall Effects
   Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4   
   Pre-policy change, 2014 Implementation only, no enforcement, 2015 Early initiation of enforcement, 2016 Continued monitoring, 2017 Main effects Interaction
       Time City Time x City
   % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) % (SE) P(df = 3) P(df = 1) P(df = 3)
Primary outcome
 Healthy Food Supply (HFS) score Minneapolis 10.6 (0.5) 11.0 (0.5) 11.3 (0.4) 11.8 (0.5) 0.008 0.0007 0.99
  St. Paul 8.7 (0.4) 8.9 (0.5) 9.3 (0.5) 9.7 (0.6)    
  p-net p = 0.79 p = 0.90 p = 0.85    
Compliance
 Met all ordinance standards Minneapolis 7.4 (2.9) 13.7 (3.9) 11.5 (3.6) 9.6 (3.4) 0.22 0.003 0.57
  St. Paul 0.4 (0.4) 2.1 (1.7) 1.9 (1.7) 4.0 (2.5)    
  p-net p = 0.26 p = 0.51 p = 0.73    
 Met ≥80% of ordinance standards Minneapolis 24.4 (4.9) 40.7 (5.6) 31.0 (5.2) 50.5 (5.9) 0.0003 < 0.0001 0.83
  St. Paul 3.2 (2.2) 11.6 (4.1) 6.7 (3.2) 14.4 (4.7)    
  p-net p = 0.35 p = 0.56 p = 0.55    
 Met ≥60% of ordinance standards Minneapolis 52.7 (5.8) 61.1 (5.6) 75.2 (4.9) 76.0 (5.1) 0.0004 0.0002 0.37
  St. Paul 35.4 (6.1) 39.9 (6.3) 43.7 (6.4) 48.9 (6.7)    
  p-net p = 0.64 p = 0.10 p = 0.24    
Met ordinance standards for specific categories:
Milk and milk alternatives Minneapolis 73.0 (5.6) 83.1 (4.3) 79.6 (4.9) 77.5 (5.4) 0.13 0.42 0.25
St. Paul 69.1 (6.0) 69.6 (5.8) 74.8 (5.6) 80.8 (5.0)    
  p-net p = 0.11 p = 0.85 p = 0.39    
Eggs Minneapolis 65.6 (5.5) 66.1 (5.4) 59.1 (5.7) 60.5 (5.8) 0.99 0.11 0.37
  St. Paul 50.2 (6.3) 51.9 (6.4) 58.5 (6.4) 53.9 (6.6)    
  p-net p = 0.90 p = 0.14 p = 0.43    
Cheese Minneapolis 46.9 (5.9) 57.2 (5.7) 52.9 (5.7) 61.7 (5.8) 0.21 0.09 0.42
  St. Paul 39.7 (6.3) 41.1 (6.4) 45.4 (6.5) 43.5 (6.7)    
  p-net p = 0.25 p = 0.98 p = 0.23    
100% juice Minneapolis 59.0 (5.9) 79.3 (4.7) 74.0 (5.0) 76.1 (5.1) 0.001 0.04 0.11
  St. Paul 52.0 (6.4) 54.4 (6.5) 64.3 (6.2) 69.3 (6.1)    
  p-net p = 0.02 p = 0.65 p = 0.89    
Fruit/Vegetable Minneapolis 32.0 (5.3) 40.5 (5.5) 39.9 (5.6) 54.7 (5.9) 0.0007 0.009 0.95
  St. Paul 19.3 (5.0) 23.3 (5.5) 21.8 (5.4) 32.6 (6.4)    
  p-net p = 0.71 p = 0.61 p = 0.57    
Meat and vegetable protein Minneapolis 82.9 (4.3) 91.0 (3.3) 93.5 (2.9) 95.8 (2.4) < 0.0001 0.95 0.96
  St. Paul 83.1 (4.7) 92.0 (3.4) 91.9 (3.5) 96.6 (2.4)    
  p-net p = 0.80 p = 0.70 p = 0.83 .   
Canned beans and legumes Minneapolis 39.2 (5.6) 48.3 (5.7) 64.7 (5.6) 67.8 (5.6) 0.0002 < 0.0001 0.42
  St. Paul 14.5 (4.5) 21.8 (5.3) 21.5 (5.3) 26.5 (5.8)    
  p-net p = 0.76 p = 0.27 p = 0.32    
Dried peas and beans Minneapolis 41.2 (5.8) 50.2 (5.9) 67.8 (5.6) 83.0 (4.6) < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
  St. Paul 26.8 (5.8) 33.9 (6.0) 29.0 (5.7) 28.6 (6.0)    
  p-net p = 0.94 p = 0.01 p = < 0.0001    
Whole grain cereal Minneapolis 76.6 (5.0) 85.2 (4.2) 82.8 (4.6) 81.2 (4.7) 0.08 0.04 0.38
  St. Paul 63.1 (6.0) 66.7 (6.4) 70.5 (5.8) 78.0 (5.4)    
  p-net p = 0.37 p = 0.90 p = 0.28    
Other whole grains Minneapolis 49.2 (5.7) 47.3 (5.6) 49.2 (5.7) 61.9 (5.8) 0.10 <.0001 0.10
  St. Paul 24.3 (5.4) 28.5 (5.8) 15.1 (4.6) 23.4 (5.7)    
  p-net p = 0.41 p = 0.23 p = 0.22    
  1. Note: Models are adjusted for repeated measures over time and for neighborhood race/ethnicity (the only covariate that was significant in bivariate comparisons between Minneapolis and St. Paul at baseline); HFSS is a linear regression model due to a continuous outcome; full compliance is a linear regression model due to zero cell for St. Paul at baseline causing non-convergence in logistic regression model; all others are logistic regression models; p-net values refer to changes in time*city effect from Time1 to Time 2, Time 1 to Time 3, and Time 1 to Time 4 respectively
  2. Note: Number of missing values (if any) for each outcome variable at each time point: Time 1: eggs = 2; cheese = 7, canned beans = 2, dried beans = 1, cereal = 1, grains = 1; Time 2: eggs = 2, cheese = 2, juice = 1, meat = 1, canned beans = 3, dried beans = 2, cereal = 2, grains = 1; Time 3: eggs = 1, canned beans = 1, dried beans = 1; Time 4: dried beans = 2
  3. Bolded values denote p < 0.05