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Table 7 Impact of the Minneapolis Staple Foods Ordinance on healthy home food availability among frequent shoppers, 2014–2017 (n = 88)

From: Evaluation of the first U.S. staple foods ordinance: impact on nutritional quality of food store offerings, customer purchases and home food environments

Outcome City Assessment Period Overall effects
   Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Time 4 Main effects Interaction
   Pre-policy revision, 2014 Implementa-tion only, 2015 Early initiation of enforcement, 2016 Continued monitoring, 2017 Time City Time x City
   Means (SE) P (df = 3) P (df = 1) P (df = 3)
Obesogenicity home food availability score Minneapolis 16.7 (1.7) 14. 8 (1.4) 16.5 (1.7) 16.6 (1.2) 0.30 0.85 0.52
  St. Paul 15.9 (1.5) 16.2 (1.5) 16.0 (1.4) 17.8 (1.4)    
  p-net   p = 0.27 p = 0.82 p = 0.32    
Types of vegetables in the home Minneapolis 7.4 (0.7) 6.2 (0.6) 6.5 (0.6) 7.9 (0.5) 0.27 0.27 0.07
  St. Paul 7.2 (0.7) 7.8 (0.6) 8.0 (0.5) 7.6 (0.6)    
  p-net   p = 0.04 p = 0.09 p = 0.87    
Types of fruit in the home Minneapolis 4.5 (0.6) 3.7 (0.6) 4.2 (0.6) 4.5 (0.6) 0.09 0.64 0.78
  St. Paul 4.6 (0.8) 4.0 (0.6) 4.1 (0.7) 5.1 (0.7)    
  p-net   p = 0.87 p = 0.87 p = 0.59    
% of participants with ≥1 reduced fat milk product in the home Minneapolis 70.0 (9.7) 67.5 (7.6) 66.0 (6.9) 72.9 (6.9) 0.97 0.81 0.89
  St. Paul 73.1 (8.8) 71.2 (7.9) 70.7 (8.3) 68.6 (9.2)    
  p-net   p = 0.98 p = 0.93 p = 0.60    
% of participants with ≥1 whole grain breakfast cereal in the home Minneapolis 70.8 (8.8) 75.8 (6.9) 76.9 (7.3) 72.4 (6.9) 0.96 0.46 0.72
  St. Paul 69.3 (9.3) 68.9 (8.5) 63.9 (8.5) 73.0 (8.5)    
  p-net   p = 0.63 p = 0.43 p = 0.90    
  1. Note: Data are from regression models adjusted for repeated measures over time and for employment status (the only variable that was significantly different in bivariate comparisons between Minneapolis (policy) and St. Paul (control) at the first study home visit); p-net values refer to changes in time*city effect from Time 1 to Time 2, Time 1 to Time 3, and Time 1 to Time 4, respectively
  2. Note: No missing data at any time point