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Table 2 Summary of the included intervention studies

From: Effectiveness of interventions using self-monitoring to reduce sedentary behavior in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study characteristics Sample characteristics Intervention characteristics Control Sedentary behavior outcome
Author, year, country Study design Sample size Age, gender, healthy vs clinical population Duration Focus Self-monitoring Other behavior change techniques No intervention or other behavior change techniques Measurement instrument used to objectively/subjectively measure total or domain-specific sedentary behavior
Arrogi, 2017, Belgium [54] Pretest posttest control group design N = 65
IG: 31
CG: 27
Mean age = 36.2 ± 10.2y
48% male
Healthy population
1 week Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of a electronic SB device: Motion sensor Shimmer (attached to the thigh) + smartphone application
Information on current behavior (i.e. time spent standing or time spent sitting), daily sedentary score and sedentary index
StAPP application including information on consequences of the behavior, instructions on how to perform the behavior, feedback on performance and general encouragement No intervention Objectively measured total SB by means of ActivPAL3 inclinometer – attached to the thigh
Adams, 2013, USA [55] Non-equivalent pretest posttest control group design N = 64
IG: 40
CG: 24
Mean age = 58.5 ± 12.5y
0% male
Obese population
6 weeks Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of a logbook
Information was reported on the number of steps (logbook and pedometer) and daily sitting time (logbook)
Information on consequences of the behavior, instructions on how to perform the behavior, feedback on performance, and goal-setting, action planning No intervention Objectively measured total SB by means of Actigraph GT3X accelerometer – attached to the right hip
Self-reported domain-specific SB by means of a weekly sitting inventory
Ashe,
2015,
Canada [39]
Pretest posttest control group design N = 25
IG: 13
CG: 12
Mean age = 64.1 ± 4.6y
0% male
Healthy population
6 months Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of electronic PA device: Fitbit One (worn in the pocket)
Information on daily steps, distance walked, stairs climbed, sedentary time, and low/moderate/vigorous physical activity
Information on consequences of the behavior, instructions on how to perform the behavior, goal setting, action planning, barrier identification and problem solving, graded tasks, review of behavioral goals, social support Intervention without self-monitoring – only information on the consequences of the behavior Objectively measured total SB by means of Actigraph GT3X accelerometer – attached to the hip
Biddle, 2015, UK [40] Pretest posttest control group design N = 187
IG: 94
CG: 93
Mean age = 32.8 ± 5.6y
31.5% male
Overweight and obese population
12 months Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of the electronic SB device: Gruve (attached to the waist)
Information on time spent sedentary, in light physical activity and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
Information on the consequences of the behavior, goal setting, barrier identification and problem solving Intervention without self-monitoring – only information on the consequences of the behavior Objectively measured total SB by means of Actigraph GT3X accelerometer – attached to the right hip
Self-reported total and domain-specific SB by means of the Total and Domain-Specific Sitting Questionnaire
Brakenridge, 2016, Australia [42] Non-equivalent pretest posttest control group design N = 153
IG: 66
CG: 87
Mean age = 38.9 ± 8.0y
54.0% male
Healthy population
3 months Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of the electronic SB device: Lumoback (attached to the waist)
Information on sitting time, standing time, number of steps, sitting breaks, posture and sleep
Information on consequences of the behavior, instructions on how to perform the behavior, facilitate social comparison Intervention without self-monitoring – only information on consequences of the behavior and social comparison Objectively measured total SB and occupational SB by means of ActivPAL3 inclinometer – attached to the dominant thigh
Carr, 2013, USA [41] Pretest posttest control group design N = 40
IG: 23
CG: 17
Mean age = 44.7 ± 9.6y
10.0% male
Overweight population
12 weeks Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of an Omron pedometer (attached to the waist)
Number of steps
Information on consequences of the behavior, environmental restructuring, instructions on how to perform the behavior, social support No intervention Objectively measured total SB and occupational SB by means of the StepWatch PA monitor – attached to the ankle
De Cocker, 2016, Belgium [43] Multigroup pretest posttest design N = 213
IG: 78
IG: 84
CG: 51
Mean age = 40.3 ± 9.1y
31.5% male
Healthy population
1 month Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of the Workforce Sitting Questionnaire
Information was reported on time spent sitting on a workday and a non-workday for the last 7 days while (1) travelling to and from places, (2) being at work, (3) watching television, (4) using a computer at home (not work related), and (5) doing other leisure activities.
Information on consequences of the behavior, normative information, feedback on performance, action planning, goal setting No intervention Objectively measured total SB by means of the ActivPAL inclinometer – attached to the thigh
Self-reported domain-specific SB by means of the Workforce Sitting Questionnaire
De Greef, 2011, Belgium [44] Pretest posttest control group design N = 92
IG: 60
CG: 32
Mean age = 62.0 ± 9.0y
69.0% male
Type 2 Diabetes population
24 weeks Sedentary behavior and physical activity Self-monitoring by means of a pedometera,b
Information on the number of steps
Information on consequences of the behavior, motivational interviewing, goal setting, problem-solving, social support No intervention Objectively measured total SB by means of an accelerometerb
Edwardson, 2018, UK [45] Non-equivalent pretest posttest control group design N = 146
IG: 77
CG: 69
Mean age = 41.2 ± 11.1y
20.0% male
Healthy population
12 months Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of an electronic SB device: Darma Cushion (placed on an chair)
Information on total sitting time, and prolonged sitting time
Information on consequences of the behavior, environmental restructuring, social support, action planning, goal setting, motivational interviewing No intervention Objectively measured total SB and occupational SB by means of ActivPAL micro inclinometer – attached to the right thigh
Kitagawa, 2019, Japan, [53] Multigroup pretest posttest design N = 48
IG:16
IG:16
CG:16
Mean age = 38.0 ± 4.5y
0% men
Healthy population
1 week Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of an electronic PA device: Jawbone Up 24 (worn around the wrist)
Information on the number of steps, total physical activity, longest activity time, longest prolonged sitting time, calorie consumption, and activity amount per time zone
Information on consequences of the behavior, feedback on performance Intervention without self-monitoring – only information on the consequences of the behavior Objectively measured longest prolonged sitting time by means of the Jawbone Up 24 – attached to the wrist
Klaren, 2016, USA [46] Pretest posttest control group design N = 70
IG: 33
CG: 37
Mean age = 49.9 ± 9.1y
20.0% male
Population with multiple sclerose
6 months Sedentary behavior and physical activity Self-monitoring by means of a Yamax SW-401 digiwalker pedometer (attached to the waist)
Information on the number of steps
Information on consequences of the behavior, goal setting, problem-solving, action planning, social support, social reward No intervention Self-reported total SB by means of the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire
Lin, 2018, Taiwan [47] Non-equivalent pretest posttest control group design N = 101
IG: 51
CG: 50
Mean age = 49.5 (SD not reported)
47.5% male
Healthy population
3 months Sedentary behavior and physical activity Self-monitoring by means of a Yamax SW-200 digiwalker pedometer (attached to the waist)
Information on the number of steps
Information on consequences of the behavior, goal setting, barrier identification, social support, review of behavioral goals, rewards contingent on successful behavior Intervention without self-monitoring – only information on the consequences of the behavior Self-reported total SB by means of the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and self-reported occupational sedentary behavior by means of the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire
Lynch, 2019, Australia [37] Pretest posttest control group design N = 83
IG:43
CG:40
Mean age = 61.6 ± 6.4y
0% men
Postmenopausal women diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer
12 weeks Sedentary behavior and physical activity Self-monitoring by means of a Garmin Vivofit 2 activity monitor (worn around the wrist)
Information on the number of steps, distance, calories and sleep/rest time
Information on consequences of the behavior, goal setting, action planning, feedback on performance, motivational interviewing No intervention Objectively measured total SB by means of ActivPAL inclinometer – attached to the right thigh
Lyons, 2017, USA [48] Pretest posttest control group design N = 40
IG: 20
CG: 20
Mean age = 61.5 ± 5.6y
15.0% male
Healthy population
12 weeks Sedentary behavior and physical activity Self-monitoring by means of an electronic PA device: Jawbone Up 24 (worn around the wrist)
Information on the number of steps, calories burned and sleep
Information on consequences of the behavior, goal setting, motivational interviewing, social support, review of behavioral goals, problem-solving, self-rewards, when and where to perform the behavior, relapse prevention, stress management, time management No intervention Objectively measured total SB by means of the ActivPAL inclinometer – attached to the right thigh
Maylor, 2018, UK [49] Non-equivalent pretest posttest control group design N = 89
IG: 48
CG: 41
Mean age = 43.4 (40.7–45.9)
43.0% male
Healthy population
8 weeks Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of a pedometera,b
Information on the number of steps
Information on consequences of the behavior, prompt practice, motivational interviewing, environmental restructuring No intervention Objectively measured total SB and occupational SB by means of ActivPAL micro inclinometer – attached to the right thigh
Smith, 2012, USA [50] Pretest posttest control group design N = 40
IG: 23
CG: 17
Mean age = 44,7 ± 9,3y
10.0% male
Overweight population
12 weeks Sedentary behavior Self-monitoring by means of a Yamax SW-200 digiwalker pedometer (attached to the waist)
Information on the number of steps
Environmental restructuring, feedback on performance, social support, goal setting No intervention Objectively measured total SB by means of the StepWatch3.0 accelerometer – attached to the ankle
Spring, 2018, USA [51] Multigroup pretest posttest design N = 128
IG: 84
CG: 44
Mean age = 40,8 ± 11,9y
23,6% male
Healthy population
9 months Sedentary behavior, physical activity and dietary behavior Self-monitoring by means of the electronic logbook of the Make Better Choices App
Information reported on leisure screen time
Feedback on performance, motivational interviewing, goal setting No intervention Self-reported domain-specific SB (sedentary leisure screen time) by means of the Make Better Choices app
White, 2017 UK [52] Pretest posttest control group design N = 103
IG: 52
CG: 51
Mean age = 68.3 ± 3.8y
41.0% male
Healthy population
12 weeks Sedentary behavior and physical activity Self-monitoring by means of a tick sheet with tips on SB
Information reported on the daily adherence to tips
Information on consequences of the behavior, goal setting, action planning, graded tasks, prompt practice, habit formation No intervention Self-reported total SB by means of the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Measure of Older adults’ Sedentary Time
Wyke, 2019, UK [36] Pretest posttest control group design N = 1113
IG: 560
CG: 553
Mean age = 45.8 ± 8.9y
100.0% male
Overweight population (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2)
12 weeks Sedentary behavior and physical activity Self-monitoring by means of an electronic SB device: SitFIT (worn in the pocket)
Information on upright time, number of steps, and percentage sedentary time of awake time
Information on consequences of the behavior, goal setting, goal reviewing, action planning, social support No intervention Objectively measured total SB by means of the ActivPAL micro inclinometer – attached to the thigh
  1. N number of participants, IG intervention group, CG control group, y years
  2. a Type of pedometer was not specified
  3. b Placement of self-monitoring/measurement tool was not specified