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Table 2 Odds ratios for considering it easy or very easy to understand different food labelling systems*

From: Understanding and use of food labeling systems among Whites and Latinos in the United States and among Mexicans: Results from the International Food Policy Study, 2017

  Total sample (N = 35,618) White (n = 14,692) Latino (n = 3316) Mexican (n = 17,610)
% OR [95% CI] % OR [95% CI] % OR [95% CI] % OR [95% CI]
Labelling Scheme (Ref. NFT)
 Warning Labels 85 4.82 [4.39–5.30] *** 87 2.90 [2.49–3.38]*** 82 4.07 [2.92–5.68]*** 84 7.95 [6.89–9.16]***
 Guideline Daily Amounts 63 1.02 [0.95–1.09] 73 0.94 [0.83–1.07 64 1.04 [0.80–1.37] 55 1.08 [0.98–1.19]
 Health Stars Rating 45 0.34 [0.31–0.37]*** 34 0.09 [0.08–0.11]*** 48 0.35 [0.25–0.47]*** 52 0.92 [0.81–1.04]
 Multiple Traffic Light 54 0.56 [0.52–0.61]*** 47 0.19 [0.17–0.22]*** 56 0.52 [0.39–0.69]*** 59 1.31 [1.17–1.45]***
Ethnicity (Ref. Latino)
 White 63 0.89 [0.75–1.05]
 Mexican 61 0.96 [0.82–1.13]
Sex (Ref. Man)         
 Woman 63 1.10 [1.01–1.20]* 65 1.27 [1.11–1.46]*** 65 1.34 [0.93–1.93] 61 0.97 [0.86–1.11]
Age (years)   1.00 [1.00–1.00]   1.00 [1.00–1.01]   1.00 [0.98–1.01]   1.00 [0.99–1.00]
Survey language (Ref. English)
 Spanish 56 1.02 [0.75–1.38] 67 1.18 [0.83–1.66]
Education (Ref. High-school or lower)
 Technical studies 64 1.08 [0.93–1.25] 65 0.97 [0.78–1.22] 68 1.71 [1.01–2.90]* 61 1.07 [0.85–1.36]
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 62 0.91 [0.81–1.02] 63 0.85 [0.71–1.03] 63 1.08 [0.71–1.64] 61 0.93 [0.78–1.11]
Income adequacy (Ref. Difficult)
 Neither easy nor difficult 60 1.04 [0.94–1.16] 60 0.82 [0.68–1.00]* 60 0.89 [0.60–1.34] 61 1.15 [1.00–1.31]*
 Easy 66 1.40 [1.25–1.56]*** 65 1.18 [0.98–1.41] 65 1.32 [0.87–2.00] 67 1.53 [1.28–1.82]***
Occupation (Ref. Unemployed)
 Part time worker or student 62 0.92 [0.82–1.03] 63 0.88 [0.75–1.04] 56 0.74 [0.47–1.14] 62 0.97 [0.80–1.18]
 Worker or student 62 0.96 [0.87–1.07] 64 0.93 [0.77–1.11] 66 0.52 [0.34–0.79]*** 61 1.08 [0.94–1.25]
BMI (Ref. Normal weight)
 Overweight 62 0.92 [0.83–1.01] 64 1.00 [0.86–1.16] 59 0.74 [0.50–1.10] 60 0.92 [0.80–1.06]
 Obesity 61 0.94 [0.84–1.05] 64 1.05 [0.89–1.24] 64 1.11 [0.72–1.71] 58 0.83 [0.70–0.98]*
Nutrition Knowledge (Ref. Not knowledgeable)
 Somewhat Knowledgeable 62 1.41 [1.28–1.56]*** 62 1.23[1.05–1.43]** 62 1.70 [1.15–2.51]** 62 1.51 [1.31–1.75]***
 Knowledgeable 69 1.97 [1.75–2.22]*** 73 1.76 [1.48–2.08]*** 68 3.19 [1.99–5.14]*** 73 2.04 [1.66–2.51]***
Calorie count (Ref. Never)
 Sometimes 66 1.28 [1.17–1.41]*** 67 1.30 [1.13–1.50]*** 59 0.75 [0.52–1.09] 67 1.40 [1.21–1.62]***
 Most of the time 69 1.51 [1.25–1.81]*** 69 1.64 [1.28–2.10]*** 73 1.14 [0.60–2.18] 68 1.49 [1.06–2.10]*
Food shopping (Ref. Yes)
 No 59 0.90 [0.78–1.04] 64 1.03 [0.83–1.29] 62 0.84 [0.44–1.58] 54 0.82 [0.66–1.01]
 Share 62 1.03 [0.93–1.14] 64 1.15 [0.99–1.34] 63 0.99 [0.65–1.50] 60 0.97 [0.84–1.13]
  1. OR = Odds Ratio; 95% CI = 95% Confidence Intervals
  2. Mixed models were adjusted for sex, age, survey language, education, income adequacy, occupation, BMI, nutrition knowledge, calorie count, and food shopping in household
  3. Significance levels: P value * < 0.05, ** < 0.01,*** < 0.001
  4. *Data were weighted using survey weights