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Table 1 Choice architecture categories and techniques according to Münscher et al. (2016) with examples

From: Nudging to move: a scoping review of the use of choice architecture interventions to promote physical activity in the general population

Category Technique Examples
A Decision information A1 Translate information
Includes: reframe, simplify
Reframing call for blood donations as death-preventing rather than life-saving
A2 Make information visible
Includes: make own behaviour visible (feedback), make external information visible
Feedback about one’s own behaviour (fitness tracker), information in the form of graphics, etc. about e.g. house insulation, credit card statements, calorie intake
A3 Provide social reference point
Includes: refer to descriptive norm, refer to opinion leader
Information about the behaviour of people from one’s own peer group or people who are valued for special purposes, experts, or role models
B Decision structure B1 Change choice defaults
Includes: set no-action default, use prompted choice
Pre-selected options that leave the freedom to select a different option (or not) such as done for organ donation or pension savings in some countries (default options), poster/banners to use stairs
B2 Change option-related effort
Includes: increase/decrease physical/financial effort
(Re) arrangements of food items in grocery stores, of menu cards in restaurants, or the presentation of food dishes at buffets so that the healthier choices are easier to reach/to choose
B3 Change range or composition of options
Includes: change categories, change grouping of options
Segregating healthy options into diverse categories
B4 Change option consequences
Includes: connect decision to benefit/cost, change social consequences of the decision
5-cent tax for a shopping bag, possibility to take part in a lottery when complying with medication or taking part in a survey
C Decision assistance C1 Provide reminders Get reminders
C 2 Facilitate commitment
Includes: support self-commitment/public commitment, browser apps, blocking the internet access for specific items; agreements between parents and schools