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Table 2 TIPPME intervention typology for environments to change behaviour according to Hollands et al. (2017)

From: Nudging to move: a scoping review of the use of choice architecture interventions to promote physical activity in the general population

Class Intervention type Examples for intervention focus
Product Related objects Wider environment
Placement Availability Adding non-alcoholic options to a bar’s range of drinks, or removing less healthy snack options from a vending machine Add baskets, trolleys or trays to a shop or restaurant to increase the number of products that people can select and carry Removing some of the entrance doors leading to a bar or cafeteria
Position Place less healthy options further away from seating, entrance, or main thoroughfare Move refrigerators containing sugary drinks to a less convenient location in a supermarket Move dividing walls or fixed furniture to alter layout of a supermarket, restaurant, or bar
Properties Functionality Allowing easier opening or pouring or demarcate plate to provide guidance for amounts of vegetables vs. meat selected Demarcate shopping trolley space to indicate designated space for fruit and vegetables Alter functionality of entrance and exit doors (e.g. change their opening mechanism)
Presentation Plain packaging for cigarettes or alcohol products Colours, textures, and visual design of shelf displays, menus, and other related object Indoor climate: temperature, humidity, air pressure, lighting
Size Change size of portions, plates, packages Change size of shopping trolleys or baskets, cafeteria trays, or food and drink storage equipment Size and shape of windows, or fixed furniture
Information Health warnings on cigarette packets, alcohol consumption units on glasses Nutritional information on menus or menu boards Information on posters, leaflets, or computer screens, in the wider environment