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Table 3 Subgroup analyses by characteristics of multi-component interventions

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the overall effects of school-based obesity prevention interventions and effect differences by intervention components

Outcomes BMI BMI Z-score
N Mean difference, 95% CI P for subgroup analyses N Mean difference, 95% CI P for subgroup analyses
Characteristics of the PA component
1) PA’s frequency and duration
  ≥ 3/week and ≥ 10 min/time 10 −0.48 (− 0.94, − 0.01) 0.63
  < 3/week or < 10 min/time 8 − 0.29 (− 0.76, 0.19)
2) Curricular PA
 Yes 14 −0.28 (− 0.60, 0.05) 0.19 7 −0.07 (− 0.19, 0.04) 0.26
 No 5 −0.89 (−1.75, − 0.03) 2 − 0.06 (− 0.16, 0.03)
3) PA emphasizing enjoyment
 Yes 8 −0.88 (−1.42, − 0.34) 0.02a
 No 11 −0.12 (− 0.42, 0.19)
Topics of HE covering both energy intake and output
 Yes 15 −0.28 (− 0.57, 0.01) 0.07 8 −0.17 (− 0.29, − 0.04) 0.18
 No 8 0.04 (− 0.14, 0.22) 5 −0.06 (− 0.15, 0.03)
Inclusion of the DI component
 Yes 12 −0.22 (− 0.63, 0.18) 0.45 10 −0.07 (− 0.18, 0.04) 0.76
 No 15 −0.42 (− 0.75, − 0.09) 6 −0.05 (− 0.07, − 0.03)
Inclusion of the SP component
 Yes 18 −0.36 (− 0.63, − 0.09) 0.07 11 −0.04 (− 0.08, − 0.01) 0.52
 No 7 − 0.01 (− 0.26, 0.24) 2 −0.08 (− 0.20, 0.03)
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, SP school policy, PA physical activity, HE health education
  2. aSignificance of the finding was disappeared when excluding the heterogeneous study (see Additional file 1: Table S5)