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Table 4 Total effects of walkability index on annual changes in cardio-metabolic risk markers, AusDiab study, 1999–2012, (N = 2023)

From: Neighborhood walkability and 12-year changes in cardio-metabolic risk: the mediating role of physical activity

Cardio-metabolic risk marker γ- regression coefficients (95%CI) P-value
WC (cm) −0.02 (− 0.05, 0.00) 0.092
Weight (kg) −0.03 (− 0.05, 0.00) 0.028
SBP (mmHg) −0.15 (− 0.21, − 0.08) < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.05) 0.552
FPG (mg/dL) −0.06 (− 0.13, 0.00) 0.053
2-h PG (mg/dL) 0.01 (− 0.11, 0.14) 0.826
HDL-C (mg/dL) −0.06 (− 0.10, − 0.02) 0.002
TG (mg/dL) 0.04 (− 0.18, 0.26) 0.702
  1. Abbreviations: WC Waist Circumference, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, FPG Fasting Plasma Glucose, 2-h PG 2-h Postload Plasma Glucose, HDL-C High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, TG Triglycerides
  2. Models adjusted for baseline age, gender, education, baseline work status, baseline household income, baseline marital status, baseline household children status, changes in socio-demographic factors (work status, household income, marital status, and household children status), height (only for weight), hypertension medication use (for SBP and DBP only), treatment for diabetes and family history of diabetes (for FPG and 2-h PG only), cholesterol medication use (for HDL-C and TG only), and Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage. Regression coefficients correspond to 1 SD increment in walkability index. P-value < 0.05 in boldface