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Table 5 Relationships of the baseline and the annual change in physical activity with annual changes in cardio-metabolic risk markers, adjusted for walkability index, AusDiab study, 1999–2012 (N = 2023)

From: Neighborhood walkability and 12-year changes in cardio-metabolic risk: the mediating role of physical activity

Cardio-metabolic risk markers β− regression coefficients
Baseline physical activity (hours/week) Change in physical activity (hours/week)
β (95%CI) P-value β (95%CI) P-value
WC (cm) −0.008 (− 0.014, − 0.002) 0.006 −0.096 (− 0.139, − 0.053) < 0.001
Weight (kg) −0.006 (− 0.011, − 0.001) 0.020 −0.056 (− 0.094, − 0.017) 0.005
SBP (mmHg) −0.001 (− 0.013, 0.012) 0.926 0.023 (− 0.070, 0.116) 0.624
DBP (mmHg) −0.004 (− 0.011, 0.004) 0.372 −0.058 (− 0.116, 0.000) 0.050
FPG (mg/dL) −0.005 (− 0.016, 0.006) 0.382 −0.099 (− 0.181, − 0.016) 0.019
2-h PG (mg/dL) −0.011 (− 0.038, 0.015) 0.397 −0.155 (− 0.354, 0.044) 0.126
HDL-C (mg/dL) 0.012 (0.004, 0.020) 0.005 0.158 (0.095, 0.221) < 0.001
TG (mg/dL) −0.028 (− 0.074, 0.018) 0.236 − 0.516 (− 0.863, − 0.169) 0.004
  1. Abbreviations: WC Waist Circumference, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, FPG Fasting Plasma Glucose, 2-h PG 2-h Postload Plasma Glucose, HDL-C High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, TG Triglycerides. Models adjusted for walkability index, baseline age, gender, education, baseline work status, baseline household income, baseline marital status, baseline household children status, changes in lifestyle factors (work status, household income, marital status, and household children status), height (only for weight), hypertension medication use (for SBP and DBP only), treatment for diabetes and family history of diabetes (for FPG and 2-h PG only), cholesterol medication use (for HDL-C and TG only), and Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage. P-value < 0.05 in boldface