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Table 2 Dietary Outcomes at Baseline and Post-Intervention by Treatment Group

From: Changes in diet and physical activity resulting from the Strong Hearts, Healthy Communities randomized cardiovascular disease risk reduction multilevel intervention trial

Outcome Baseline
Mean (SD)
Post-intervention,
Mean (SD)
Pre-post change
Control SHHC Intervention Adjusted differenceb,c
Control SHHC Intervention Control SHHC Intervention Mean (95% CI) a p-value Mean (95% CI) a p-value Mean (95% CI) p-value
Kcal 1826.4 (59.2) 1744.2 (48.9) 1560.3 (65.6) 1562.8 (54.0) −233.5 (− 389.0,-78.0) .003 −183.9 (− 332.3,-35.4) .015 49.6 (− 144.3, 243.6) .616
Carbohydrate, g 198.7 (6.9) 190.3 (6.3) 168.4 (7.9) 174.7 (7.3) −26.8 (−46.9,-6.8) .009 −16.4 (−36.5,3.8) .111 10.4 (− 15.6,36.5) .432
Protein, g 75.8 (2.2) 73.2 (1.8) 72.9 (2.8) 70.0 (2.3) −1.5 (−7.1,4.1) .593 −2.7 (−7.6,2.3) .289 −1.2 (− 7.7,5.4) .729
Fiber, g 15.6 (0.7) 15.2 (0.5) 14.5 (0.8) 15.9 (0.8) −0.9 (−2.9,1.1) .355 0.7 (−1.2,2.6) .461 1.6 (−0.8,4.1) .195
Total fat, g 79.5 (3.2) 76.1 (2.5) 66.1 (3.6) 65.8 (2.8) −12.1 (−20.6,-3.6) .005 −10.5 (− 18.3,-2.6) .009 1.7 (−8.9,12.2) .757
Saturated fat, g 26.9 (1.2) 26.2 (1.0) 22.9 (1.3) 21.9 (1.1) −3.6 (−6.8,-0.5) .023 −4.4 (−7.2,-1.6) .004 1.4 (−2.4,5.1) .731
Monounsaturated fat, g 28.7 (1.1) 27.4 (0.9) 22.5 (1.2) 23.2 (1.0) −5.8 (−8.8,-2.7) <.001 −3.2 (− 5.8,-0.6) .002 1.9 (−1.6,5.5) .479
Polyunsaturated fat, g 17.1 (0.9) 16.1 (0.6) 15.2 (1.0) 15.4 (0.7) −1.5 (−3.8,0.9) .233 −0.4 (−2.5,1.6) .684 1.0 (−1.8,3.9) .481
Dietary cholesterol, mg 274.0 (12.4) 281.6 (14.6) 263.5 (19.7) 267.0 (14.1) −10.4 (− 54.8,33.9) .644 −9.7 (− 50.4,31.0) .640 0.7 (− 55.0,56.5) .979
Sodium, mg 3146.7 (104.0) 3118.3 (89.2) 2841.6 (116.3) 2775.5 (91.5) − 266.4 (− 505.7,-27.0) .029 − 299.6 (− 525.1,-74.1) .009 −33.2 (− 331.0,264.6) .827
HEI 2015 Score 56.3 (1.3) 57.0 (1.1) 57.6 (1.6) 61.9 (1.4) 1.0 (−2.8,4.8) .603 4.9 (1.4,8.4) .006 3.9 (−1.0,8.8) .119
Average daily intake of…
Fruits and vegetables in cup equivalents 2.6 (0.1) 2.6 (0.1) 2.2 (0.2) 2.8 (0.2) −0.5 (−0.8,−0.1) .023 0.1 (− 0.2,0.5) .529 0.6 (0.1,1.1) .026
Fruits in cup equivalents 0.9 (0.1) 1.0 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1) -0.1 (−0.4,0.2) .348 0.1 (−0.2,0.4) .401 0.3 (−0.1,0.6) .179
Vegetables in cup equivalents 1.7 (0.1) 1.6 (0.1) 1.4 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) −0.3 (−0.5,− 0.1) .004 0.0 (− 0.2,0.2) .866 0.3 (0.1,0.6) .016
Whole grains in oz. equivalents 0.8 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) 1.0 (0.1) 0.9 (0.1) 0.2 (−0.1,0.5) .230 0.1 (−0.1,0.4) .360 -0.1 (−0.4,0.3) .738
Refined grains in oz. equivalents 4.4 (0.3) 3.9 (0.2) 3.6 (0.3) 3.3 (0.2) −0.6 (−1.2,0.1) .109 −0.6 (−1.3,0.0) .058 − 0.1 (− 0.9,0.8) .871
Seafood high in n-3 fatty acids in oz. equivalents 0.0 (0.0) 0.1 (0.0) 0.2 (0.1) 0.2 (0.1) 0.1 (0.0,0.3) .170 0.1 (0.0,0.2) .069 0.0 (−0.2,0.2) .736
Legumes in oz. equivalents 0.1 (0.0) 0.1 (0.0) 0.1 (0.0) 0.1 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0,0.0) .926 0.0 (0.0,0.1) .237 0.0 (0.0,0.1) .335
Oils in gramsd 22.8 (1.4) 19.8 (1.0) 19.9 (1.5) 19.9 (1.3) −1.7 (−5.2,1.8) .333 0.0 (−3.5,3.4) .981 1.7 (− 3.0,6.4) .481
Solid fats in gramse 38.9 (1.8) 38.9 (1.7) 31.5 (2.0) 29.7 (1.8) −7.6 (−12.7,-2.5) .004 −9.2 (−14.4,-4.1) <.001 −1.7 (−8.6,5.2) .632
Added sugars in teaspoon equivalents 11.9 (0.9) 11.9 (0.8) 9.9 (1.0) 10.1 (0.9) −2.2 (−4.8,-0.3) .087 −1.9 (−4.3,0.5) .123 0.3 (−3.0,3.7) .847
  1. aSignificant within-group pre-post changes are bolded and italicized (corrected p-value using Benjamini-Hochberg approach is .0468)
  2. bSignificant between-group differences are bolded (corrected p-value using Benjamini-Hochberg approach is .0468)
  3. cAdjusted for town, education, age, marital status, and baseline value of the outcome
  4. dFats naturally present in nuts, seeds, seafood; unhydrogenated vegetable oils, except palm oil, palm kernel oil, coconut oils; fat in avocado and olives above allowable amount; 50% of fat present in stick/tub margarines, margarine spreads (grams)
  5. eFats naturally present in meat, poultry, eggs, dairy (lard, tallow, butter); hydrogenated/partially hydrogenated oils; shortening, palm, palm kernel, coconut oils; coconut meat, cocoa butter; 50% of fat in stick/tub margarines, margarine spreads (grams)