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Table 4 Meal duration, Total bites per meal, and Pause duration at baseline, T21, and T31 of the three different intervention groups with p - values for Phase (T1, T2, or T3), Condition (NFC, VFC, or VFC+), and Phase*Condition*; for number of observations see the flowchart. Mean ± SD

From: Effects of eating with an augmented fork with vibrotactile feedback on eating rate and body weight: a randomized controlled trial

  NFC VFC VFC+ Phase Condition Phase x condition
Meal duration (seconds):
 Baseline 589 ± 35a 694 ± 34 651 ± 37a†    
 T2 683 ± 38b 722 ± 35 679 ± 38a    
 T3 683 ± 40b 752 ± 38 791 ± 38b < .0001 .24 .14
Total bites (per meal):
 Baseline 55.8 ± 4.1 65.5 ± 3.9 59.2 ± 4.2    
 T2 59.8 ± 4.2a† 49.9 ± 3.9ab† 41.9 ± 4.3b†    
 T3 63.8 ± 4.4 57.3 ± 4.2 53.3 ± 4.3 < .0001 .29 < .0001
Pause duration (seconds):
 Baseline 13.1 ± 1.1a 13.1 ± 1.1a 14.3 ± 1.2a    
 T2 14.7 ± 1.2a 19.3 ± 1.1b† 21.3 ± 1.2b†    
 T3 15.2 ± 1.3a† 17.7 ± 1.3b†‡ 19.8 ± 1.2b‡ < .0001 .64 .019
  1. 1 NFC no feedback condition, VFC vibrotactile feedback condition, VFC+ vibrotactile + visual feedback condition
  2. T1: Baseline measurement before the intervention period; T2: follow-up measurement directly after the intervention period; T3: follow-up measurement eight weeks after the intervention period.
  3. * p-values Mixed model ANOVA, fixed factors: phase of the study, condition, phase*condition, random factor: subject. Boldface: significant at at least p < .05
  4. Columns with different letters are significantly different (at least p < 0.05)
  5. Rows with different symbols are significantly different (at least p < 0.05)