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Table 2 Intervention characteristics

From: Effectiveness of physical activity interventions for overweight and obesity during pregnancy: a systematic review of the content of behaviour change interventions

Author & Year Theory Contact type Contact Delivery Setting Type Intervention durationa BCTs
Callaway et al 2010 [48] Not present Face-to-face (individual) + via phone 6 face to face Exercise physiologists; Dietician; Physiotherapists; Midwife Clinical setting PA 24 weeks 1.2 Problem solving
1.3 Goal setting outcome
2.2 Feedback on behaviour
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
5.1 Information about health consequence
Oostdam et al 2012 [54] Not present Face-to-face (individual) At least 1 face to face Physiotherapist Clinical setting + midwifery practices PA 17 weeks (+ 12 weeks postpartum follow up) 3.1 Social Support (Unspecified)
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
5.1 Information about health consequence
8.1 Behavioural practice/rehearsal
Nascimento et al 2011 [53] Not present Face-to-face (individual + group) 8 face to face Physicaltherapist Clinical setting + participants home PA 19 weeks 2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
3.1 Social Support (Unspecified)
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
5.1 Information about health consequence
8.1 Behavioural practice/rehearsal
Kong et al 2014 [50] Not present Face-to-face (individual) 3 face to face Study coordinator Clinical setting + participants home PA 20 weeks 2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
12.5 Adding objects to the environment
Seneviratne et al 2016 [64] Not present Face-to-face (individual) 1 face to face Exercise physiologist Participants home PA 15 weeks 1.1 Goal setting (behaviour)
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
12.5 Adding objects to the environment
Ong et al 2009 [56] Not present Not specified no mention of contact with study team Not specified Participants home PA 10 weeks 12.5 Adding objects to the environment
Santos et al 2005 [57] Not present Face-to-face (individual) no mention of contact with study team Not specified Clinical setting PA 12 weeks 8.1 Behavioural practice/rehearsal
Garnaes et al 2016 [65] Not present Face-to-face (individual or group) At least 1 face to face Physical therapist Clinical setting PA 19 weeks 2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
2.4 Self-monitoring of outcome(s) of behaviour
3.1 Social Support (Unspecified)
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
8.1 Behavioural practice/rehearsal
Dodd et al 2014 [60] Stage theories of health decision making Face-to-face (individual) + via phone 3 phone calls; 1 face to face Dietician; Research assistants Clinical setting PA + diet 20 weeks (+  16 weeks post-partum follow up) 1.2 Problem solving
1.3 Goal setting outcome
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
5.1 Information about health consequence
Guelinckx et al 2009 [51] Techniques of behavioural modification Face-to-face (group) 3 group sessions Nutritionist Clinical setting PA + diet 17 weeks 4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
6.1 Demonstration of the behaviour
Hawkins et al 2015 [49] The Trans theoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory Face-to-face (individual) + via phone 6 face to face; 5 phone calls Health educators Clinical setting PA + diet 24 weeks (+  6 weeks post-partum follow up) 1.2 Problem solving
1.3 Goal setting outcome
2.2 Feedback on behaviour
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
3.1 Social Support (Unspecified)
Koivusalo et al 2016 [52] Not present Face-to-face (individual + group) 3 face to face; group visits Study nurse; Nutritionist Clinical setting PA + diet 22 weeks 1.1 Goal setting (behaviour)
1.4 Action Planning
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
Poston et al 2015 [61] Control theory and elements of social cognitive theory Face-to-face (individual + group) 8 face to face Health trainer Clinical setting PA + diet 16 weeks (+  24 week post-partum follow up) 1.2 Problem solving
1.3 Goal setting (outcome)
1.7 Review outcome goals
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
3.1 Social Support (Unspecified)
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
5.1 Information about health consequence
6.1 Demonstration of the behaviour
6.2 Social comparison
8.1 Behavioural practice/rehearsal
Renault et al 2014 [62] Not present Face-to-face (individual) + via phone 6 face to face; 6 follow up calls Dietician Clinical setting PA + diet 22 weeks 1.1 Goal setting (behaviour)
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
3.1 Social Support (Unspecified)
Szmeja et al 2014 [66] Stage theories of health decision making Face-to-face (individual) + via phone 2 face to face; 3 calls Research dietician; Trained research assistants Clinical setting PA + diet 8 weeks 1.2 Problem solving
1.3 Goal setting (outcome)
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
5.1 Information about health consequence
Vinter et al 2011 [55] Not present Face-to-face (individual) 4 face to face Dieticians; physiotherapists Clinical setting PA + diet 21 weeks 1.3 Goal setting (outcome)
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
3.1 Social Support (Unspecified)
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
8.1 Behavioural practice/rehearsal
Bruno et al 2017 [63] Not present Face-to-face (individual) At least 1 face to face Gynaecologist; Dietician Clinical setting PA + diet 20 weeks 1.5 Review behaviour goal(s)
1.7 Review outcome goal(s)
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
Van Horn et al 2018 [59] Not present Face-to-face (individual + group), email, text + phone At least 1 face to face; 6 group sessions; weekly emails/phone call Registered dietician nutritionist Clinical setting, virtual setting (website) PA + diet 20 weeks 1.2 Problem solving
2.2 Feedback on behaviour
2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviour
5.1 Information about health consequence
Kennelly et al 2018 [58] Control theory and social cognitive theory Face-to-face + smartphone application 3 face to face; email every 2 weeks Nutritionist and obstetrician Clinical setting, smartphone application PA + diet 13 ± weeks 1.1 Goal setting (behaviour)
1.2 Goal setting (outcome)
2.4 Self-monitoring of outcomes(s) of behaviour
4.1 Instruction on how to perform behaviour
5.1 Information about health consequences
7.1 Prompts and cues
8.2 Behaviour substitution
8.3 Habit formulation
  1. PA physical activity, BCT behaviour change technique, afull intervention length