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Table 3 Multivariable-Adjusted Changes (95% CI) in Calorie Underestimation and Noticing of Menu Calorie Information by Adults, Adolescents, and Children After Calorie Labeling in McDonald’s Restaurants Compared to Other Fast-Food Restaurants

From: Evaluation of the impact of calorie labeling on McDonald’s restaurant menus: a natural experiment

  Underestimated Calories Purchased
McDonald’s Other Chains Difference-in-differencesa
Pre Post Change (crude) Change (adjusted)a Pre Post Change (crude) Change (adjusted)a
Adults 63% 64% 1% (−6, 8%) 1% (− 6, 8%) 69% 68% 0% (−5, 4%) −1% (− 5, 4%) 1% (− 7, 9%)
Adolescentsb,c 78% 71% −6% (− 12, 0%) −5% (− 12, 1%) 76% 71% − 5% (− 10, − 1%) − 5% (− 10, − 1%) −1% (−9, 8%)
Childrenc 68% 67% −1% (− 17, 14%) 1% (− 16, 17%) 70% 69% 0% (− 14, 13%) −2% (− 17, 12%) 3% (−18, 24%)
  Noticed Calorie Information
McDonald’s Other Chains Difference-in-differencesa
Pre Post Change (crude) Change (adjusted)a Pre Post Change (crude) Change (adjusted)a
Adults 15% 45% 30% (24, 36%) 30% (24, 37%) 25% 26% 2% (−2, 6%) 2% (−2, 6%) 28% (21, 36%)
Adolescentsb,c 11% 38% 27% (21, 32%) 26% (20, 32%) 18% 19% 1% (− 4, 5%) 1% (−3, 5%) 25% (18, 32%)
Childrenc 14% 36% 21% (7, 35%) 22% (7, 37%) 18% 25% 7% (−3, 18%) 9% (−2, 21%) 13% (− 7, 31%)
  1. aChanges in the predicted probability of the outcome of interest are adjusted for age (years, continuous), sex (female [ref], male), race/ethnicity (white [ref], black, Asian, Hispanic, other), BMI (kg/m2, continuous), city (Boston [ref], Hartford, Providence, Springfield), and restaurant chain (Burger King [ref], KFC, Subway, Wendy’s). Restaurant location was included as a random effect
  2. bControl restaurants included Burger King (ref), Wendy’s, Subway, and Dunkin’ Donuts
  3. cAdjusted for BMI-for-age-and-sex z score (continuous) instead of BMI