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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants (n = 157)

From: Serum carotenoids are strongly associated with dermal carotenoids but not self-reported fruit and vegetable intake among overweight and obese women

 Mean or NumberSD or %
Age (years)58.569.49
Race
 White15095.5
 Other63.8
 Not reported10.6
Employment status
 Employed10667.5
 Unemployed53.2
 Homemaker95.7
 Retired3622.9
 Not reported10.6
Household income
  < $25,0003019.1
 $25,000 to < $50,0004226.8
 $50,000 to < $75,0003421.7
  ≥ $75,0004126.1
 Not reported106.4
Smoking status
 Current smoker63.8
 Former smoker4126.1
 Never smoker11070.1
Alcohol use
 Yes7346.5
 No8453.5
Dietary supplement use
 Yes11372.0
 No4428.0
Carotenoid-containing dietary supplement use
 Yes4629.3
 No11170.7
Lipid-lowering medication use
 Yes4025.5
 No3824.2
 Not reported7950.3
Chronic disease diagnosis 1
 Yes11372.0
 No4428.0
Anthropometric characteristics
 Measured BMI35.726.48
 Self-reported BMI35.306.50
 Dermal carotenoid score34,067.9410,454.01
Blood measurements
 Serum carotenoids (μg/g)0.850.36
 Serum cholesterol (mg/dL)201.7842.92
 Serum triglycerides (mg/dL)143.8574.51
Fruit and vegetable intake (cups/day)
 Modified AHA tool2.801.47
 FVS 23.992.68
 24-h recall 22.331.38
Dietary characteristics
 Energy intake (kcal/d)1801.79504.20
 Total fat intake (g/d)78.3927.38
 Total dietary carotenoids measured by 24-h recall (μg)9971.896225.30
  1. 1Includes diagnoses of hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, and kidney disease
  2. 2Estimate excludes potatoes and beans