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Table 2 Change in log serum carotenoids per unit change in log dermal carotenoids and self-reported FVI 1,2

From: Serum carotenoids are strongly associated with dermal carotenoids but not self-reported fruit and vegetable intake among overweight and obese women

  Unadjusted Model Field-based Scenario Model Non-clinical Research Scenario Model Clinical Research Scenario Model
β SE β SE β SE β SE
Log dermal carotenoid score 0.43** 0.04 0.43** 0.04 0.43** 0.04 0.42** 0.03
 State    0.08** 0.02 0.08** 0.02 0.05 0.02
 Age (years)    0.00 0.00 0.00* 0.00 0.00 0.00
 Self-reported BMI    0.00 0.00     
 Measured BMI      0.00* 0.00 0.00 0.00
 Self-reported fat intake (g/day)      0.00 0.00   
 Log serum cholesterol (mg/dL)        0.26** 0.05
R2 0.44 0.54 0.55 0.61
ΔAIC 49.35 24.74 24.43 0.00
Modified AHA tool FVI (cups/day) 0.03* 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.01
 State    0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 −0.01 0.03
 Age (years)    0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 Self-reported BMI    −0.01** 0.00     
 Measured BMI      −0.01** 0.00 − 0.01* 0.00
 Self-reported fat intake (g/day)      0.00 0.00   
 Log serum cholesterol (mg/dL)        0.29** 0.07
R2 0.05 0.15 0.17 0.24
ΔAIC 26.86 14.64 13.84 0.00
Log FVS FVI (cups/day) 3 0.07 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.07 0.03 0.06 0.03
 State    0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.03
 Age (years)    0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 Self-reported BMI    −0.01** 0.00     
 Measured BMI      −0.01** 0.00 −0.01* 0.00
 Self-reported fat intake (g/day)      0.00 0.00   
 Log serum cholesterol (mg/dL)        0.29** 0.07
R2 0.04 0.15 0.16 0.24
ΔAIC 28.32 14.63 14.38 0.00
Log 24-h recall FVI (cups/day) 3 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04
State    0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 −0.01 0.03
 Age (years)    0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 Self-reported BMI    −0.01** 0.00     
 Measured BMI      −0.01** 0.00 −0.01* 0.00
 Self-reported fat intake (g/day)      0.00 0.00   
 Log serum cholesterol (mg/dL)        0.30** 0.07
R2 0.01 0.13 0.14 0.22
ΔAIC 28.82 15.50 16.19 0.00
  1. 1n = 157
  2. 2FVI Fruit and vegetable intake, FVS National Cancer Institute All-day Fruit and Vegetable Screener, AHA American Heart Association
  3. 3Potatoes and beans removed from dietary FVI measures when possible
  4. Bonferroni corrected significance denoted: * P < 0.01 (95% confidence) and ** P < 0.002 (99% confidence)