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Table 2 Change in log serum carotenoids per unit change in log dermal carotenoids and self-reported FVI 1,2

From: Serum carotenoids are strongly associated with dermal carotenoids but not self-reported fruit and vegetable intake among overweight and obese women

 Unadjusted ModelField-based Scenario ModelNon-clinical Research Scenario ModelClinical Research Scenario Model
βSEβSEβSEβSE
Log dermal carotenoid score0.43**0.040.43**0.040.43**0.040.42**0.03
 State  0.08**0.020.08**0.020.050.02
 Age (years)  0.000.000.00*0.000.000.00
 Self-reported BMI  0.000.00    
 Measured BMI    0.00*0.000.000.00
 Self-reported fat intake (g/day)    0.000.00  
 Log serum cholesterol (mg/dL)      0.26**0.05
R20.440.540.550.61
ΔAIC49.3524.7424.430.00
Modified AHA tool FVI (cups/day)0.03*0.010.020.010.030.010.020.01
 State  0.020.030.020.03−0.010.03
 Age (years)  0.000.000.000.000.000.00
 Self-reported BMI  −0.01**0.00    
 Measured BMI    −0.01**0.00− 0.01*0.00
 Self-reported fat intake (g/day)    0.000.00  
 Log serum cholesterol (mg/dL)      0.29**0.07
R20.050.150.170.24
ΔAIC26.8614.6413.840.00
Log FVS FVI (cups/day) 30.070.030.060.030.070.030.060.03
 State  0.030.030.020.030.000.03
 Age (years)  0.000.000.000.000.000.00
 Self-reported BMI  −0.01**0.00    
 Measured BMI    −0.01**0.00−0.01*0.00
 Self-reported fat intake (g/day)    0.000.00  
 Log serum cholesterol (mg/dL)      0.29**0.07
R20.040.150.160.24
ΔAIC28.3214.6314.380.00
Log 24-h recall FVI (cups/day) 30.060.040.020.040.020.040.040.04
State  0.030.030.030.03−0.010.03
 Age (years)  0.000.000.000.000.000.00
 Self-reported BMI  −0.01**0.00    
 Measured BMI    −0.01**0.00−0.01*0.00
 Self-reported fat intake (g/day)    0.000.00  
 Log serum cholesterol (mg/dL)      0.30**0.07
R20.010.130.140.22
ΔAIC28.8215.5016.190.00
  1. 1n = 157
  2. 2FVI Fruit and vegetable intake, FVS National Cancer Institute All-day Fruit and Vegetable Screener, AHA American Heart Association
  3. 3Potatoes and beans removed from dietary FVI measures when possible
  4. Bonferroni corrected significance denoted: * P < 0.01 (95% confidence) and ** P < 0.002 (99% confidence)