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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants according to changes in commuting mode over 5 years (n = 29,758)

From: Association of changes in commute mode with body mass index and visceral adiposity: a longitudinal study

Baseline variablesMaintained inactive commutea (n = 14,704)Switched from active or public transportation to inactive commute (n = 2485)Switched from inactive to active or public transportation commute (n = 2359)Maintained active or public transportation (n = 10,210)
 Age, years43.1 ± 8.142.0 ± 8.142.1 ± 7.943.8 ± 8.2
 Men, n (%)12,405 (84.4)2147 (86.4)2023 (85.8)9233 (90.4)
 Body mass index, kg/m223.5 ± 3.523.6 ± 3.523.6 ± 3.523.6 ± 3.3
 Body weight, kg67.0 ± 12.067.9 ± 12.167.7 ± 12.268.0 ± 11.3
 Visceral fat areas, cm2 b119.0 ± 50.7122.0 ± 48.2130.6 ± 53.6119.8 ± 51.3
 Subcutaneous fat areas, cm2 b141.2 ± 61.2146.2 ± 62.0145.8 ± 59.0137.8 ± 58.1
 Waist circumference, cmb86.4 ± 8.687.0 ± 8.487.8 ± 8.586.3 ± 8.3
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg121.7 ± 14.1121.0 ± 14.2121.3 ± 14.0122.1 ± 14.2
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg75.9 ± 10.175.5 ± 10.375.9 ± 9.976.5 ± 10.1
 Treatment for hypertension, n (%)1021 (6.9)163 (6.6)135 (5.7)708 (6.9)
 Fasting triglyceride, mg/dLc125.6 ± 89.3131.8 ± 93.9131.3 ± 97.0130.1 ± 95.3
 HDL-cholesterol, mg/dLc55.6 ± 14.155.5 ± 14.255.3 ± 13.955.9 ± 14.0
 LDL-cholesterol, mg/dLc118.7 ± 30.6118.1 ± 30.0118.5 ± 30.6119.3 ± 29.4
 Treatment for dyslipidemia, n (%)654 (4.5)96 (3.9)108 (4.6)412 (4.0)
 Fasting plasma glucose, mg/dLc100.5 ± 18.7100.5 ± 19.899.5 ± 16.5101.6 ± 19.1
 HbA1c, %c5.7 ± 0.75.7 ± 0.75.6 ± 0.75.7 ± 0.7
 Treatment for diabetes, n (%)405 (2.8)75 (3.0)50 (2.1)288 (2.8)
 Current smokers, n (%)7021 (47.7)3663 (35.9)1058 (42.6)1029 (43.6)
 Ethanol consumption of ≥46 g per day, n (%)1291 (8.8)231 (9.3)214 (9.1)977 (9.6)
 Sleep duration of < 6 h/day, n (%)7504 (51.1)1313 (52.9)1260 (53.4)5393 (52.8)
 Leisure-time exercise in min/week56.1 ± 147.647.1 ± 107.156.8 ± 139.148.1 ± 120.6
 No leisure-time exercise, n (%)9567 (65.1)1663 (66.9)1513 (64.1)6838 (67.0)
 Sedentary work, n (%)7810 (53.1)1660 (66.8)1588 (67.3)7486 (73.3)
 Shift work, n (%)3450 (23.5)372 (15.0)362 (15.4)976 (9.6)
 Not in high job position, n (%)12,745 (86.7)2004 (80.6)1845 (78.2)7532 (73.8)
 Overtime work ≥45 h/month, n (%)4987 (33.9)959 (38.6)958 (40.6)3973 (38.9)
Primary commute mode, n (%)
 Walking0 (0)659 (26.5)0 (0)3017 (29.6)
 Cycling0 (0)930 (37.4)0 (0)1980 (19.4)
 Bus/train (public transportation)0 (0)896 (36.1)0 (0)5213 (51.1)
 Car/motorbike14,704 (100)0 (0)2359 (100)0 (0)
Walking to and from work
  < 20 min, n (%)10,730 (73.0)1029 (41.4)1669 (70.8)2503 (24.5)
 20 to < 40 min, n (%)3708 (25.2)969 (39.0)632 (26.8)4277 (41.9)
  ≥ 40 min, n (%)266 (1.8)487 (19.6)58 (2.5)3430 (33.6)
  1. HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein
  2. Data are shown as mean ± SD for continuous variables or number (%) for categorical variables
  3. aInactive commuting mode was defined as commuting by car or motorbike
  4. bVisceral and subcutaneous fat areas were measured using CT scans among 2129 participants for maintaining inactive commute group, 328 for switching to inactive mode group, 322 for switching to active or public transportation use group, and 1543 for maintaining active or transportation mode group. Meanwhile, the corresponding numbers for CT-scan measured waist circumference were 1672, 256, 266, and 1272, respectively
  5. cData on fasting triglyceride were available among 12,373 participants for maintaining inactive commuting, 2055 for switching to inactive commuting, 1935 for switching to active commuting, and 8753 for maintaining active commuting. For fating or non-fasting HDL, the corresponding numbers were 13,215, 2163, 2052, and 9073; for fasting or non-fasting LDL, 13,118, 2147, 2027, and 9003; for fasting glucose, 12,354, 2050, 1931, and 8742; for HbA1c, 13,195, 2158, 2050, and 9058, respectively