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Table 4 Changes in indicators of abdominal obesity as classified according to commuting mode transition (n = 4322)

From: Association of changes in commute mode with body mass index and visceral adiposity: a longitudinal study

 Crude modelP valuesMultivariable model 1aP valuesMultivariable model 2bP values
Waist circumference (cm)
 Maintained inactive0.7 (0.4, 1.0)Reference0.9 (0.6, 1.1)Reference0.9 (0.6, 1.1)Reference
 Switching to inactive1.2 (0.6, 1.9)0.200.9 (0.5, 1.2)0.150.8 (0.4, 1.2)0.10
 Switching to active or public transportation−0.4 (−1.1, 0.4)0.0070.6 (0.4, 0.8)0.0520.5 (0.3, 0.7)0.17
 Maintained active or transportation0.7 (0.4, 1.1)0.980.7 (0.4, 1.0)0.850.7 (0.4, 1.0)0.27
Visceral fat areas (cm2)
 Maintained inactive5.3 (3.7, 6.9)Reference5.4 (4.1, 6.6)Reference5.6 (4.3, 6.9)Reference
 Switching to inactive6.4 (2.4, 10.3)0.585.2 (3.1, 7.3)0.634.4 (2.3, 6.5)0.20
 Switching to active or public transportation−0.8 (−5.4, 3.9)0.0072.2 (1.1, 3.4)0.111.5 (0.3, 2.7)0.25
 Maintained active or public transportation4.6 (2.8, 6.4)0.644.2 (2.5, 5.9)0.424.2 (2.5, 5.9)0.59
Subcutaneous fat areas (cm2)
 Maintained inactive5.1 (3.7, 6.5)Reference5.0 (3.9, 6.2)Reference5.4 (4.2, 6.5)Reference
 Switching to inactive5.7 (2.0, 9.5)0.735.5 (3.6, 7.3)0.554.2 (2.4, 6.0)0.19
 Switching to active or public transportation2.0 (−1.5, 5.5)0.113.2 (1.8, 4.7)0.163.0 (2.0, 4.0)0.51
 Maintained active or public transportation3.5 (1.9, 5.0)0.133.7 (2.8, 4.7)0.133.2 (1.7, 4.7)0.80
  1. Data are shown as estimated mean with 95% confidence intervals of changes in obesity outcome. Maintained inactive group, n = 2129; switching from active or public transportation commuting to inactive group, n = 328; switching from inactive to active or public transportation commuting group, n = 322; maintained active or public transportation commuting group, n = 1532
  2. aModel 1: Adjusted for age and sex at baseline. In addition, baseline variables of each outcome, treated as continuous data, were adjusted for (e.g., baseline waist circumference when outcome is changes in waist circumference)
  3. bModel 2: Further adjusted for other variables