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Table 1 Socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics of participants at baseline, during follow-up and average change over 5-year of follow-up

From: Longitudinal association of changes in diet with changes in body weight and waist circumference in subjects at high cardiovascular risk: the PREDIMED trial

Parameters Baseline
Mean (SD)
Average during follow-up
Mean (SD)
Average yearly change during follow-up
Mean (5th, 95th percentiles)
Socio-demographic and lifestyle
 Males sex (%) 42   
 Age (years) 67.0 (6.2)   
 Body weight (kg) 76.7 (12.0) 76.4 (12.1) −0.13 (−2.89, 2.60)
 BMI (kg/m2) 30.0 (3.8) 29.9 (3.9) −0.05 (− 1.15, 1.00)
 Obesity prevalence (%) 47   
 Waist circumference (cm) 100 (10) 100 (10) −0.04 (−5.00, 5.00)
 Abdominal obesity prevalence (%) 73   
 Diabetes prevalence (%) 48   
 Current smoker (%) 14   
 Higher education/technician (%) 7   
 Physical activity (METs. min/d) 233 (239) 250 (213) 3.96 (− 155, 163)
 Total energy intake (kcal/d) 2239 (543) 2189 (432) −33.4 (− 487, 429)
 Adherence to MedDiet (14-points score) 9 (2) 10 (2) 0.5 (−1.0, 2.5)
Food groups intake (serving/d)
 EVOO 2.11 (2.31) 3.48 (2.13) 0.49 (−1.50, 2.50)
 Nuts 0.34 (0.46) 0.57 (0.54) 0.07 (−0.36, 0.65)
 Fruits 1.84 (1.01) 1.98 (0.78) 0.05 (−0.75, 0.93)
 Low-fat milk 1.07 (0.99) 1.11 (0.81) 0.04 (−0.75, 0.83)
 Fish and seafood 0.87 (0.44) 0.92 (0.32) 0.01 (−0.33, 0.36)
 Low-fat yogurt 0.29 (0.41) 0.32 (0.36) 0.01 (−0.31, 0.32)
 White meat 0.44 (0.26) 0.47 (0.20) 0.01 (−0.22, 0.26)
 Legumes 0.14 (0.08) 0.15 (0.06) 0.00 (−0.06, 0.07)
 Vegetables 1.51 (0.68) 1.53 (0.53) 0.00 (−0.50, 0.54)
 Eggs 0.33 (0.19) 0.34 (0.14) 0.00 (−0.14, 0.14)
 Refined grains 0.34 (0.24) 0.33 (0.17) 0.00 (−0.18, 0.21)
 Breakfast cereals 0.10 (0.35) 0.11 (0.30) 0.00 (−0.14, 0.19)
 Whole bread 0.37 (0.78) 0.35 (0.57) −0.01 (− 0.57, 0.50)
 Snacks, fast foods and pre-pared dishes 0.32 (0.41) 0.31 (0.34) −0.01 (− 0.34, 0.28)
 SSB 0.18 (0.43) 0.15 (0.29) −0.01 (− 0.29, 0.22)
 Natural juices 0.14 (0.33) 0.13 (0.25) −0.01 (− 0.22, 0.22)
 ASB 0.11 (0.42) 0.09 (0.31) −0.01 (− 0.20, 0.14)
 Margarine 0.08 (0.26) 0.06 (0.17) −0.01 (− 0.17, 0.09)
 Butter 0.04 (0.18) 0.03 (0.13) −0.01 (− 0.07, 0.03)
 Cheese 0.59 (0.52) 0.54 (0.37) −0.02 (− 0.43, 0.36)
 Potatoes 0.54 (0.32) 0.51 (0.21) −0.02 (− 0.36, 0.28)
 Whole-fat yogurt 0.12 (0.29) 0.09 (0.19) −0.02 (− 0.25, 0.14)
 Whole-fat milk 0.23 (0.60) 0.15 (0.43) −0.03 (− 0.39, 0.09)
 Alcoholic beverages 0.78 (1.29) 0.71 (1.06) −0.03 (− 0.60, 0.50)
 Red meat 0.39 (0.29) 0.30 (0.20) −0.04 (− 0.27, 0.16)
 White bread 1.24 (1.19) 1.16 (0.90) −0.04 (−1.00, 0.86)
 Coffee/tea 1.46 (1.10) 1.35 (0.87) −0.04 (− 0.91, 0.79)
 Processed meat 0.87 (0.66) 0.71 (0.41) −0.06 (− 0.59, 0.38)
 Other vegetable oils 0.30 (0.83) 0.10 (0.36) −0.09 (− 0.50, 0.07)
 Sweets 2.34 (2.68) 1.94 (2.10) −0.19 (−2.22, 1.37)
 Olive oil 1.75 (2.00) 0.97 (1.42) −0.26 (−2.50, 1.25)
  1. Values are mean (SD) for baseline and follow-up continuous variables, and percentages for categorical variables. Average changes during follow-up were assessed as means with censoring of data for interquartile range (5th, 95th percentile). Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥ 88 cm (women) and ≥ 102 cm (men). MedDiet Mediterranean Diet (14-points score), ASB artificially-sweetened beverages, BMI body mass index, EVOO extra virgin olive oil, SSB sugar-sweetened beverages