Skip to main content

Table 1 Socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics of participants at baseline, during follow-up and average change over 5-year of follow-up

From: Longitudinal association of changes in diet with changes in body weight and waist circumference in subjects at high cardiovascular risk: the PREDIMED trial

ParametersBaseline
Mean (SD)
Average during follow-up
Mean (SD)
Average yearly change during follow-up
Mean (5th, 95th percentiles)
Socio-demographic and lifestyle
 Males sex (%)42  
 Age (years)67.0 (6.2)  
 Body weight (kg)76.7 (12.0)76.4 (12.1)−0.13 (−2.89, 2.60)
 BMI (kg/m2)30.0 (3.8)29.9 (3.9)−0.05 (− 1.15, 1.00)
 Obesity prevalence (%)47  
 Waist circumference (cm)100 (10)100 (10)−0.04 (−5.00, 5.00)
 Abdominal obesity prevalence (%)73  
 Diabetes prevalence (%)48  
 Current smoker (%)14  
 Higher education/technician (%)7  
 Physical activity (METs. min/d)233 (239)250 (213)3.96 (− 155, 163)
 Total energy intake (kcal/d)2239 (543)2189 (432)−33.4 (− 487, 429)
 Adherence to MedDiet (14-points score)9 (2)10 (2)0.5 (−1.0, 2.5)
Food groups intake (serving/d)
 EVOO2.11 (2.31)3.48 (2.13)0.49 (−1.50, 2.50)
 Nuts0.34 (0.46)0.57 (0.54)0.07 (−0.36, 0.65)
 Fruits1.84 (1.01)1.98 (0.78)0.05 (−0.75, 0.93)
 Low-fat milk1.07 (0.99)1.11 (0.81)0.04 (−0.75, 0.83)
 Fish and seafood0.87 (0.44)0.92 (0.32)0.01 (−0.33, 0.36)
 Low-fat yogurt0.29 (0.41)0.32 (0.36)0.01 (−0.31, 0.32)
 White meat0.44 (0.26)0.47 (0.20)0.01 (−0.22, 0.26)
 Legumes0.14 (0.08)0.15 (0.06)0.00 (−0.06, 0.07)
 Vegetables1.51 (0.68)1.53 (0.53)0.00 (−0.50, 0.54)
 Eggs0.33 (0.19)0.34 (0.14)0.00 (−0.14, 0.14)
 Refined grains0.34 (0.24)0.33 (0.17)0.00 (−0.18, 0.21)
 Breakfast cereals0.10 (0.35)0.11 (0.30)0.00 (−0.14, 0.19)
 Whole bread0.37 (0.78)0.35 (0.57)−0.01 (− 0.57, 0.50)
 Snacks, fast foods and pre-pared dishes0.32 (0.41)0.31 (0.34)−0.01 (− 0.34, 0.28)
 SSB0.18 (0.43)0.15 (0.29)−0.01 (− 0.29, 0.22)
 Natural juices0.14 (0.33)0.13 (0.25)−0.01 (− 0.22, 0.22)
 ASB0.11 (0.42)0.09 (0.31)−0.01 (− 0.20, 0.14)
 Margarine0.08 (0.26)0.06 (0.17)−0.01 (− 0.17, 0.09)
 Butter0.04 (0.18)0.03 (0.13)−0.01 (− 0.07, 0.03)
 Cheese0.59 (0.52)0.54 (0.37)−0.02 (− 0.43, 0.36)
 Potatoes0.54 (0.32)0.51 (0.21)−0.02 (− 0.36, 0.28)
 Whole-fat yogurt0.12 (0.29)0.09 (0.19)−0.02 (− 0.25, 0.14)
 Whole-fat milk0.23 (0.60)0.15 (0.43)−0.03 (− 0.39, 0.09)
 Alcoholic beverages0.78 (1.29)0.71 (1.06)−0.03 (− 0.60, 0.50)
 Red meat0.39 (0.29)0.30 (0.20)−0.04 (− 0.27, 0.16)
 White bread1.24 (1.19)1.16 (0.90)−0.04 (−1.00, 0.86)
 Coffee/tea1.46 (1.10)1.35 (0.87)−0.04 (− 0.91, 0.79)
 Processed meat0.87 (0.66)0.71 (0.41)−0.06 (− 0.59, 0.38)
 Other vegetable oils0.30 (0.83)0.10 (0.36)−0.09 (− 0.50, 0.07)
 Sweets2.34 (2.68)1.94 (2.10)−0.19 (−2.22, 1.37)
 Olive oil1.75 (2.00)0.97 (1.42)−0.26 (−2.50, 1.25)
  1. Values are mean (SD) for baseline and follow-up continuous variables, and percentages for categorical variables. Average changes during follow-up were assessed as means with censoring of data for interquartile range (5th, 95th percentile). Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥ 88 cm (women) and ≥ 102 cm (men). MedDiet Mediterranean Diet (14-points score), ASB artificially-sweetened beverages, BMI body mass index, EVOO extra virgin olive oil, SSB sugar-sweetened beverages