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Table 2 Associations of age, educational attainment and sex with physical activity (PA) outcomes: Main effects for entire sample

From: Do associations of sex, age and education with transport and leisure-time physical activity differ across 17 cities in 12 countries?

PA outcomenAgeEducational attainment
(reference: < high school graduate)
Sex
(reference: male)
High school graduate or some collegeCollege degree or higherFemale
eb (e95% CI)eb (e95% CI)eb (e95% CI)eb (e95% CI)
Transport-related PA (no significant curvilinear associations)
 Yes, ≥10 min/week a13,233 F(2, 13.208) = 7.42*** 
  linear: 0.991 (0.987, 0.994)***0.95 (0.83, 1.09)1.15 (1.00, 1.33)1.02 (0.94, 1.11)
 Non-zero min/week b10,166 F(2, 10,141) = 9.24*** 
  linear: 1.003 (1.001, 1.004)**1.00 (0.94, 1.06)0.89 (0.84, 0.95)**0.87 (0.84, 0.91)***
 Yes, ≥150 min/week a13,233 F(2, 13,208) = 0.23 
  linear: 1.001 (0.998, 1.004)1.04 (0.93, 1.17)1.02 (0.91, 1.16)0.90 (0.84, 0.98)**
Leisure-time PA
 Yes, ≥10 min/week a13,233 F(2, 13,209) = 146.32*** 
  linear: 0.750 (0.549, 1.025)1.51 (1.35, 1.70)***2.16 (1.90, 2.45)***0.90 (0.83, 0.97)**
  curvilinear (smooth term) c: χ2(3.94) = 46.96***
(see Fig. 1a)
 Non-zero min/week b9427 F(2, 9403) = 3.84* 
  linear: 1.025 (0.854, 1.231)1.02 (0.96, 1.09)0.95 (0.89, 1.02)0.87 (0.84, 0.91)***
  curvilinear (smooth term) c: F(3.68, 9399.30) = 5.42***
(see Fig. 1b)
 Yes, ≥150 min/week a13,233 F(2, 13,209) = 81.11*** 
  linear: 0.889 (0.697, 1.134)1.43 (1.27, 1.61)***1.75 (1.55, 1.98)***0.87 (0.81, 0.94)***
  curvilinear (smooth term) c: χ2(3.53) = 18.56***
(see Fig. 2)
  1. 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; exp.(b) exponential function of regression coefficient; exp.(95% CI) = exponential function of confidence interval; n = sample size
  2. a Generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) with binomial variance and logit link functions, for which exp.(b) is interpreted as odds ratio
  3. b GAMM with Gamma variance and logarithmic link functions, for which exp.(b) is interpreted as the proportional increase in PA associated with a 1 unit increase in the predictor
  4. c The approximate statistical significance of the smooth term is based on chi-squared (χ2) and F-ratio statistic for GAMMs with binomial and Gamma variance function, respectively. All models adjusted for city, working status, marital status, administrative-unit-level socio-economic status and walkability
  5. * p-value ranging from ≤.05 to >.01; ** p-value ranging from ≤01 to >.001; *** p ≤ .001