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Table 1 Environmental characteristics associated with time spent in passive transport modes based on the literature, with their implied relation to car driving

From: Neighbourhood drivability: environmental and individual characteristics associated with car use across Europe

Environmental characteristicsImplied relation with drivability
Density
 Residential densityaHigher residential density associated with lower car use [14,15,16].
 Population densityHigher population density associated with lower car ownership and car use [15,16,17].
 Car road densityaHigher car road density associated with a higher car use [13].
Diversity
 Land-use mixaHigher diversity associated with lower car use [14, 18, 26].
Design
 Traffic signal densityaHigher traffic signal density associated with lower car use [18].
 Intersection densityHigher three-way intersection density associated with higher car use [19].
Destination accessibility
 Parking at workHigher availability of parking at work associated with higher car use [27].
 Distance to destinationHigher distance to work or retail, associated with higher car use [20, 28].
Distance to transit
 Distance to transitHigher distance to transit associated with higher car use [17, 18, 29].
Demand management
 Parking supplyaHigher availability of parking lots is associated with higher car use [17, 21, 22, 30].
 Parking costsHigher parking cost is associated lower car use [23].
  1. aVariables included in the present study