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Table 3 Changes in mean daily step counts between baseline and the last two recorded weeks stratified by engagement group and physical activity status within engagement group, least-square means (LSM) and 95% confidence intervals

From: Commercial app use linked with sustained physical activity in two Canadian provinces: a 12-month quasi-experimental study

 Differencesa (Average of last two recorded weeks - Baseline)Cohen’s f2
Engagement groups
 Limited users− 392.3 (− 439.9 to − 344.7)0.0173
 Occasional users− 473.2 (− 527.4 to − 418.9)0.0211
 Regular users448.8 (407.9 to 489.7)0.0156
 Committed users884.6 (824.8 to 944.4)0.0563
Physical activity status within engagement group
 Physical inactive, Limited users388.6 (333.6 to 443.6)0.0287
 Physically inactive, Occasional users435.5 (372.2 to 498.9)0.0306
 Physically inactive, Regular users1215 (1163 to 1266)0.1617
 Physically inactive, Committed users1821 (1739 to 1902)0.3140
 Physically active, Limited users− 957.9 (− 1027 to − 888.3)0.0818
 Physically active, Occasional users− 1141 (− 1219 to − 1062)0.1011
 Physically active, Regular users−161.1 (− 220.4 to −101.7)0.0017
 Physically active, Committed users262.3 (181.4 to 343.3)0.0059
  1. Note: LSM have been averaged over the levels of gender and province and assumed an average level for all of the other continuous demographic variables included in the model. Cohen’s f2 ≥ 0.02, f2 ≥ 0.15, and f2 ≥ 0.35 represents small, medium, and large effect sizes, respectively
  2. aThe difference between baseline and the average of last two recorded weeks were statistically significant at P < .0001 for all sub-group analyses