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Table 2 Results overview

From: “Food” and “non-food” self-regulation in childhood: a review and reciprocal analysis

Domains Food self-regulation (eg. ASR, SREI) Non-food self-regulation (eg of action, emotions, cognitions)
Possible underpinning processes EF, EC, Inhibitory Control, delay-of-gratification, recursive bottom-up and top-down processes EF, EC, Inhibitory Control, delay-of-gratification, recursive bottom-up and top-down processes, Hot and cool/cold EF
Possible unique components and processes Early homeostatic regulation, satiation versus satiety, hormonal and brain responses to food, different time courses of regulation (e.g., meal versus diet), regulation of quantity versus quality of diet, different influences on bottom-up processes (such as hunger versus palatable food signals), role of disinhibited eating in the disruption of ASR, and quantity and quality of food intake effects on brain development and EF. Unique components and processes in non-food self-regulation
Relationships between food and non-food self-regulation The pathway to food SR is via non-food SR (little evidence in support).
Food and non-food SR have common EF and EC underpinnings (limited evidence in young children, but support in middle childhood and beyond).
Non-food SR contributes directly to ASR-related outcomes such as BMI and obesity (little evidence in support).
Integration of aspects of non-food and food SR and the associated underpinning processes across childhood (likely and warrants further research).