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Table 1 Associations between compliance with Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and physiological outcomes

From: Prospective associations with physiological, psychosocial and educational outcomes of meeting Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years

  Adiposity Bone Health (age 10–12 years)
Waist circumference (age 6–8 years; cm) Waist circumference (age 9–11 years; cm) BMI z-score (age 6–8 years) BMI z-score (age 9–11 years) Total body BMD z-score Lumbar Spine (L2–4) z-Score Total body BMC Lumbar spine (L2–4) Fracture history
b 95%CI b 95%CI b 95%CI b 95%CI B 95%CI b 95%CI B 95%CI B 95%CI OR 95%CI
Model 1: Meets all 3 guidelines −0.33 −1.75, 1.08 −2.01 −4.03, 0.00 − 0.07 − 0.22, 0.07 −0.26 − 0.47, − 0.05 0.09 −0.32, 0.51 − 0.14 −0.68, 0.41 26.52 −79.32, 132.35 −0.60 −4.32, 3.11 1.26 0.39, 4.07
Model 2: Meets guidelines assessed individually
 Meets physical activity guidelines 0.79 −1.02, 2.60 0.03 −2.68, 2.73 0.10 −0.09, 0.29 0.08 −0.20, 0.36 0.67 0.23, 1.10 0.52 −0.07, 1.11 178.89 67.25, 290.54 3.01 −1.07, 7.10 2.59 0.50, 13.57
 Meets screen-time guidelines −0.20 −1.40, 1.10 − 0.66 −2.39, 1.06 −0.04 − 0.17, 0.08 −0.04 − 0.27, 0.19 −0.07 − 0.45, 0.31 −0.35 − 0.85, 0.14 − 11.28 − 110.11, 87.54 −1.54 −4.95, 1.87 0.90 0.29, 2.79
 Meets sleep guidelines −1.71 − 3.60, 0.18 − 0.81 − 3.59, 1.97 − 0.00 − 0.20, 0.20 −0.04 − 0.34, 0.26 a   a   a   a   a  
Model 3: Meets individual guidelines adjusting for compliance with other guidelines
 Physical activity 0.83 −0.98, 2.63 0.06 −2.4, 2.76 0.10 −0.08, 0.29 0.13 −0.22, 0.48 0.67 0.23, 1.11 0.55 −0.04, 1.14 183.19 69.92, 296.46 3.20 −0.89, 7.30 2.59 0.50, 13.67
 Screen-time −0.34 −1.67, 0.99 −1.56 −3.47, 0.36 −0.09 − 0.22, 0.05 −0.13 − 0.38, 0.12 −0.11 − 0.47, 0.26 −0.38 − 0.87, 0.11 −28.35 −122.00, 65.30 − 1.77 −5.19, 1.65 0.88 0.28, 2.82
 Sleep −1.94 −4.35, 0.47 −1.30 −4.92, 2.33 −0.09 −0.33, 0.16 − 0.36 −0.84, 0.11 a   a   a   a   a  
  1. BMI Body mass index, BMC Bone mineral content, BMD Bone mineral density, L2–4 Lumbar vertebral spine 2–4, B: Regression coefficient, 95%CI 95% confidence interval; a: compliance with the sleep guideline was omitted from some analyses as all children in the sample were compliant; bolded values are significant at p < 0.05