Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the children and families by family structure

From: A cross-sectional study of obesogenic behaviours and family rules according to family structure in European children

Variable P-value
  Two-parent biological Single-parent Two-parent blended/ adoptive Other family types Total  
Information on the child-level
Family structure, n (%) 6293 (82.1) 756 (9.9) 482 (6.3) 133 (1.7) 7664  
Age (years), mean ± SD 10.8 ± 2.9 11.5 ± 2.6 11.3 ± 2.8 11.4 ± 2.3 10.9 ± 2.9 0.0001
BMI z-score, mean ± SD 0.59 ± 1.15 0.57 ± 1.16 0.57 ± 1.16 0.57 ± 1.16 0.58 ± 1.2 0.0006
Sex, n (%)
  Male 3194 (50.8) 376 (49.7) 239 (49.6) 74 (55.6) 3883 (50.7) 0.61
  Female 3099 (49.2) 380 (50.3) 243 (50.4) 59 (44.4) 3781 (49.3)
Number of children in the household
  1 560 (8.9) 225 (29.8) 64 (13.3) 50 (37.6) 899 (11.7) 0.0001
  2 3456 (54.9) 370 (48.9) 182 (37.8) 55 (41.4) 4063 (53.0)
  3 1721 (27.4) 142 (18.8) 162 (33.6) 18 (13.5) 2043 (26.7)
  4 556 (8.8) 19 (2.5) 74 (15.4) 10 (7.5) 659 (8.6)
Country, n (%)
  Italy 1387 (22.0) 58 (7.7) 23 (4.8) 22 (16.5) 1490 (19.4)  
  Estonia 437 (6.9) 86 (11.4) 130 (27.0) 19 (14.3) 672 (8.8)  
  Cyprus 1878 (29.8) 124 (16.4) 41 (8.5) 20 (15.0) 2063 (26.9)  
  Belgium 111 (1.8) 19 (2.5) 11 (2.3) 0 (0) 141 (1.8)  
  Sweden 605 (9.6) 86 (11.4) 46 (9.5) 1 (0.8) 738 (9.6)  
  Germany 803 (12.8) 175 (23.2) 106 (22) 26 (19.6) 1110 (14.5)  
  Hungary 779 (12.4) 165 (21.2) 114 (23.7) 38 (28.6) 1096 (14.3)  
  Spain 293 (4.7) 43 (5.7) 11 (2.3) 7 (5.3) 354 (4.6) < 0.0001
Parent’s education level (ISCED), n (%)
  Low 330 (5.5) 49 (6.8) 32 (6.8) 18 (14.3) 429 (5.8) < 0.0001
  Medium 2636 (34.6) 333 (45.9) 235 (49.9) 79 (62.7) 3283 (44.6)
  High 3068 (50.9) 344 (47.4) 204 (43.3) 29 (2.03) 3655 (49.6)
Screen time (hours/week), mean ± SD 15.8 ± 10.1 18.6 ± 11.8 17.6 ± 12.1 17.1 ± 11.6 16.2 ± 10.5 < 0.0001
Sleep duration (hours/day), mean ± SD 9.4 ± 1.1 9.3 ± 1.1 9.4 ± 1.3 9.4 ± 1.1 9.4 ± 1.11 0.004
SSBs (servings/day), mean ± SD 1.0 ± 1.3 1.1 ± 1.6 1.3 ± 1.6 1.2 ± 1.5 1.1 ± 1.3 0.01
Information on the family-level
Family structure, n (%) 3881 (78.8) 580 (11.8) 360 (7.3) 102 (2.1) 4923  
Presence of rules for screen time, n (%)
  Present 2983 (88.1) 402 (82.2) 248 (80) 77 (85.6) 3710 (86.8) < 0.0001
  Not present 404 (11.9) 87 (17.8) 62 (20) 13 (14.4) 566 (13.2)
Availability of SSBs at home, n (%)
  Available 774 (22.2) 121 (24.2) 78 (24.6) 28 (30.4) 1001 (22.7) 0.17
  Not available 2718 (77.8) 379 (75.8) 239 (75.4) 64 (69.6) 3400 (77.3)
Presence of bedtime routines, n (%)
  Present 2101 (82.2) 245 (81.9) 163 (85.3) 41 (74.6) 2550 (82.2) 0.32
  Not present 456 (17.3) 54 (18.1) 28 (14.7) 14 (25.5) 552 (17.8)
  1. Abbreviations: n, number of children; SD, Standard Deviation; BMI, body mass index; ISCED, International Standard Classification of Education; SSBs, sugar-sweetened beverages. P values are from ANOVA or chi-square test, as appropriate. The number of subjects for each variable might vary due to missing data