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Table 4 The relative importance of peers and sibling behavior change on children’s lifestyle behavioral change  for all children, and stratified by target children’s sex, sibling pair sex and age difference between siblings

From: Like me, like you – relative importance of peers and siblings on children’s fast food consumption and screen time but not sports club participation depends on age

  Fast food consumption (frequency/week) P-value Screen time duration (hours/week) P-value Sports club duration (hours/week) P-value
Model Outcome: child’s behavior N Explanatory variables β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
2 All children 525 Peer’s behavior change 0.93 0.81, 1.04 < 0.001 0.46 0.24, 0.68 < 0.001 0.43 0.18, 0.68 0.001
Sibling’s behavior change 0.14 0.07, 0.21 < 0.001 0.40 0.33, 0.47 < 0.001 0.28 0.20, 0.36 < 0.001
2a Boys 272 Peer’s behavior change 0.97 0.81, 1.12 < 0.001 0.55 0.25, 0.84 < 0.001 0.33 0.01, 0.64 0.041
Sibling’s behavior change 0.14 0.06, 0.22 0.001 0.44 0.34, 0.54 < 0.001 0.23 0.13, 0.33 < 0.001
2b Girls 253 Peer’s behavior change 0.87 0.70, 1.04 < 0.001 0.12 −0.25, 0.48 0.530 0.56 0.16, 0.96 0.007
Sibling’s behavior change 0.12 0.00, 0.24 0.052 0.39 0.30, 0.49 < 0.001 0.34 0.21, 0.47 < 0.001
2c Children with a same-sex sibling 265 Peer’s behavior change 0.91 0.75, 1.07 < 0.001 0.51 0.20, 0.82 0.001 0.44 0.09, 0.79 0.013
Sibling’s behavior change 0.23 0.14, 0.33 < 0.001 0.50 0.40, 0.61 < 0.001 0.28 0.16, 0.41 < 0.001
2d Children with an opposite-sex sibling 260 Peer’s behavior change 0.94 0.78, 1.11 < 0.001 0.34 0.04, 0.64 0.032 0.35 −0.02, 0.72 0.062
Sibling’s behavior change 0.03 −0.06, 0.13 0.487 0.32 0.23, 0.42 < 0.001 0.26 0.15, 0.38 < 0.001
2e Children with a near-aged sibling (≤ 2.7 years differences) 190 Peer’s behavior change 0.48 0.25, 0.72 < 0.001 0.69 0.30, 1.09 0.001 0.44 0.09, 0.79 0.013
Sibling’s behavior change 0.41 0.15, 0.68 0.001 0.52 0.40, 0.64 < 0.001 0.28 0.16, 0.41 < 0.001
2f Children with a much younger or older sibling (> 2.7 years differences) 335 Peer’s behavior change 1.06 0.90, 1.21 < 0.001 0.25 −0.02, 0.51 0.065 0.35 −0.02, 0.72 0.062
Sibling’s behavior change 0.11 0.05, 0.19 0.001 0.33 0.25, 0.41 < 0.001 0.26 0.15, 0.38 < 0.001
  1. N, number of observations of children
  2. Each child from a sibling pair was randomly assigned to be the target child or sibling
  3. Linear mixed models adjusted for age and sex of the target children, age of the sibling, sex of the sibling pair, birth order, parental education, and country and family ID as random effects
  4. In model 1e the age difference between the sibling is ≤2.7 years. In model 1f the age difference between siblings is > 2.7 years