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Table 4 The relative importance of peers and sibling behavior change on children’s lifestyle behavioral change  for all children, and stratified by target children’s sex, sibling pair sex and age difference between siblings

From: Like me, like you – relative importance of peers and siblings on children’s fast food consumption and screen time but not sports club participation depends on age

 Fast food consumption (frequency/week)P-valueScreen time duration (hours/week)P-valueSports club duration (hours/week)P-value
ModelOutcome: child’s behaviorNExplanatory variablesβ95% CIβ95% CIβ95% CI
2All children525Peer’s behavior change0.930.81, 1.04< 0.0010.460.24, 0.68< 0.0010.430.18, 0.680.001
Sibling’s behavior change0.140.07, 0.21< 0.0010.400.33, 0.47< 0.0010.280.20, 0.36< 0.001
2aBoys272Peer’s behavior change0.970.81, 1.12< 0.0010.550.25, 0.84< 0.0010.330.01, 0.640.041
Sibling’s behavior change0.140.06, 0.220.0010.440.34, 0.54< 0.0010.230.13, 0.33< 0.001
2bGirls253Peer’s behavior change0.870.70, 1.04< 0.0010.12−0.25, 0.480.5300.560.16, 0.960.007
Sibling’s behavior change0.120.00, 0.240.0520.390.30, 0.49< 0.0010.340.21, 0.47< 0.001
2cChildren with a same-sex sibling265Peer’s behavior change0.910.75, 1.07< 0.0010.510.20, 0.820.0010.440.09, 0.790.013
Sibling’s behavior change0.230.14, 0.33< 0.0010.500.40, 0.61< 0.0010.280.16, 0.41< 0.001
2dChildren with an opposite-sex sibling260Peer’s behavior change0.940.78, 1.11< 0.0010.340.04, 0.640.0320.35−0.02, 0.720.062
Sibling’s behavior change0.03−0.06, 0.130.4870.320.23, 0.42< 0.0010.260.15, 0.38< 0.001
2eChildren with a near-aged sibling (≤ 2.7 years differences)190Peer’s behavior change0.480.25, 0.72< 0.0010.690.30, 1.090.0010.440.09, 0.790.013
Sibling’s behavior change0.410.15, 0.680.0010.520.40, 0.64< 0.0010.280.16, 0.41< 0.001
2fChildren with a much younger or older sibling (> 2.7 years differences)335Peer’s behavior change1.060.90, 1.21< 0.0010.25−0.02, 0.510.0650.35−0.02, 0.720.062
Sibling’s behavior change0.110.05, 0.190.0010.330.25, 0.41< 0.0010.260.15, 0.38< 0.001
  1. N, number of observations of children
  2. Each child from a sibling pair was randomly assigned to be the target child or sibling
  3. Linear mixed models adjusted for age and sex of the target children, age of the sibling, sex of the sibling pair, birth order, parental education, and country and family ID as random effects
  4. In model 1e the age difference between the sibling is ≤2.7 years. In model 1f the age difference between siblings is > 2.7 years