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Table 2 Baseline and changes of measurements over two-year and six-year follow-up

From: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and bone stiffness index across weight status in European children and adolescents

 BaselineTwo-year changesSix-year changes
Thin/normal weightOverweight/obeseThin/normal weightOverweight/obeseThin/normal weightOverweight/obese
(N = 1627 a/833 b)(N = 381 a/204 b)(N = 1273 a/633 b)(N = 380 a/206 b)(N = 523 a/302 b)(N = 193 a/96 b)
Anthropometric measures (Mean, SD) c
 Percentiles of bone stiffness index43.92 (27.84)41.36 (25.76)3.86 (30.17)4.60 (25.55)8.08 (34.59) *18.88 (33.46) *
 Height z-score0.37 (1.00) *0.87 (1.02) *0.04 (0.40)0.06 (0.39)0.20 (0.60) *0.05 (0.68) *
 Weight z-score0.07 (0.87) *2.00 (0.78) *0.03 (0.38) *0.19 (0.52) *0.21 (0.66) *0.43 (0.87) *
Reported healthy behaviour
 Watching TV/video/DVD (hours/week, Mean, SD) c8.67 (5.00) *9.74 (5.32) *0.62 (4.57)0.71 (5.13)2.05 (6.41)3.09 (7.57)
 Playing computer/games (hours/week, Mean, SD) c2.34 (3.39)2.69 (3.58)1.38 (3.58) *2.17 (4.66) *2.84 (5.83)3.63 (7.16)
 Sports clubs (hours/week, Mean, SD) c1.13 (1.60)1.32 (1.63)0.72 (1.77)0.56 (1.89)1.41 (2.56)0.90 (2.67)
Weight bearing sports (N, %) d
 Moderate or high mechanical loads752 (79.5)194 (20.5)866 (76.5)266 (23.5)396 (73.5)143 (26.5)
 No or low mechanical loads875 (82.4)187 (17.6)407 (78.1)114 (21.9)127 (71.8)50 (28.2)
Accelerometer data (Mean, SD)
 Sedentary time (hours/day) c4.46 (1.21) *4.72 (1.26) *0.70 (1.39)0.61 (1.42)2.31 (1.53)2.41 (1.59)
 Light physical activity (hours/day) c6.37 (1.00)6.39 (1.10)−0.46 (1.14)−0.57 (1.23)−1.47 (1.28)− 1.56 (1.29)
 Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (10 min/day) c4.28 (2.21) *3.57 (1.93) *−0.23 (2.43)− 0.45 (1.96)0.10 (2.61)− 0.50 (2.72)
  1. a Sample size with full information of self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour as well as co-variables. b Sample size with full information of accelerometer data as well as co-variables. c Changes of values were the differences between follow-up and baseline measurements. d Changes of values were the percentages of reported moderate or high mechanical loads at baseline or follow-up, and no or low mechanical loads in both waves, respectively. * p < 0.01