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Table 2 Baseline and changes of measurements over two-year and six-year follow-up

From: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and bone stiffness index across weight status in European children and adolescents

  Baseline Two-year changes Six-year changes
Thin/normal weight Overweight/obese Thin/normal weight Overweight/obese Thin/normal weight Overweight/obese
(N = 1627 a/833 b) (N = 381 a/204 b) (N = 1273 a/633 b) (N = 380 a/206 b) (N = 523 a/302 b) (N = 193 a/96 b)
Anthropometric measures (Mean, SD) c
 Percentiles of bone stiffness index 43.92 (27.84) 41.36 (25.76) 3.86 (30.17) 4.60 (25.55) 8.08 (34.59) * 18.88 (33.46) *
 Height z-score 0.37 (1.00) * 0.87 (1.02) * 0.04 (0.40) 0.06 (0.39) 0.20 (0.60) * 0.05 (0.68) *
 Weight z-score 0.07 (0.87) * 2.00 (0.78) * 0.03 (0.38) * 0.19 (0.52) * 0.21 (0.66) * 0.43 (0.87) *
Reported healthy behaviour
 Watching TV/video/DVD (hours/week, Mean, SD) c 8.67 (5.00) * 9.74 (5.32) * 0.62 (4.57) 0.71 (5.13) 2.05 (6.41) 3.09 (7.57)
 Playing computer/games (hours/week, Mean, SD) c 2.34 (3.39) 2.69 (3.58) 1.38 (3.58) * 2.17 (4.66) * 2.84 (5.83) 3.63 (7.16)
 Sports clubs (hours/week, Mean, SD) c 1.13 (1.60) 1.32 (1.63) 0.72 (1.77) 0.56 (1.89) 1.41 (2.56) 0.90 (2.67)
Weight bearing sports (N, %) d
 Moderate or high mechanical loads 752 (79.5) 194 (20.5) 866 (76.5) 266 (23.5) 396 (73.5) 143 (26.5)
 No or low mechanical loads 875 (82.4) 187 (17.6) 407 (78.1) 114 (21.9) 127 (71.8) 50 (28.2)
Accelerometer data (Mean, SD)
 Sedentary time (hours/day) c 4.46 (1.21) * 4.72 (1.26) * 0.70 (1.39) 0.61 (1.42) 2.31 (1.53) 2.41 (1.59)
 Light physical activity (hours/day) c 6.37 (1.00) 6.39 (1.10) −0.46 (1.14) −0.57 (1.23) −1.47 (1.28) − 1.56 (1.29)
 Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (10 min/day) c 4.28 (2.21) * 3.57 (1.93) * −0.23 (2.43) − 0.45 (1.96) 0.10 (2.61) − 0.50 (2.72)
  1. a Sample size with full information of self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour as well as co-variables. b Sample size with full information of accelerometer data as well as co-variables. c Changes of values were the differences between follow-up and baseline measurements. d Changes of values were the percentages of reported moderate or high mechanical loads at baseline or follow-up, and no or low mechanical loads in both waves, respectively. * p < 0.01