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Table 4 Longitudinal associations between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and bone stiffness index percentiles after 2 years

From: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and bone stiffness index across weight status in European children and adolescents

 Whole groupThin/normal weight groupOverweight/obese group
β (99%CI)p-valueβ (99%CI)p-valueβ (99%CI)p-value
Main sample (self-reported data,, N = 1653)
 Baseline watching TV/video/DVD (hours/week)0.06(− 0.33,0.44)0.7120.28(− 0.18,0.74)0.118− 0.63(− 1.34,0.07)0.021
 Baseline playing computer/games (hours/week)0.02(− 0.57,0.60)0.943− 0.12(− 0.81,0.57)0.6510.42(− 0.67,1.50)0.318
 Baseline sports clubs (hours/week)1.07(− 0.23,2.36)0.0340.96(− 0.54,2.46)0.0981.03(− 1.54,3.60)0.299
 Change of watching TV/video/DVD (hours/week)0.11(− 0.28,0.49)0.4680.36(−0.10,0.81)0.042−0.63(−1.35,0.08)0.022
 Change of playing computer/games (hours/week)0.09(−0.35,0.54)0.5930.09(− 0.47,0.64)0.6880.32(− 0.41,1.04)0.258
 Change of sports clubs (hours/week)1.28 (0.30,2.26)0.0011.29 (0.10,2.48)0.0051.04(−0.63,2.70)0.110
 Weight bearing sports
 Moderate or high mechanical loads vs. No or low mechanical loads (reference)−0.69(−4.99,3.61)0.6780.32(− 4.76,5.41)0.870−3.13(−11.14,4.89)0.313
Subsample (accelerometer data, N = 839)
 Baseline sedentary time (hours/day)0.60(−1.77,2.96)0.5160.99(−1.86,3.85)0.369−0.39(−4.65,3.86)0.811
 Baseline light physical activity (hours/day)−0.81(−3.50,1.89)0.439−1.60(−4.93,1.73)0.2140.16(−4.46,4.78)0.927
 Baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (10 min/day)2.77 (1.50,4.05)< 0.0012.97 (1.53,4.42)< 0.0012.85(−0.12,5.81)0.013
 Change of sedentary time (hours/day)−0.85(−2.58,0.88)0.205−1.19(−3.25,0.87)0.1350.10(−3.09,3.29)0.935
 Change of light physical activity (hours/day)−0.94(−3.03,1.16)0.249−1.45(−3.99,1.09)0.1400.42(−3.26,4.10)0.768
 Change of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (10 min/day)1.05(−0.09,2.18)0.0180.89(−0.39,2.16)0.0731.76(−0.88,4.40)0.084
  1. Adjusted for baseline age, sex, socio-economic status, daylight, bone stiffness index percentiles, height and weight z-scores, country as a random effect