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Table 4 Standardized Estimates for Model 1 and Model 4 on descriptive and injunctive parental and peer norms and snacking behavior

From: Exploring the directionality in the relationship between descriptive and injunctive parental and peer norms and snacking behavior in a three-year-cross-lagged study

  DN (Model 1) DN controlled for IN (Model 4) IN (Model 4) IN controlled for DN (Model 4)
β S.E. β S.E. β S.E. β S.E.
Stability paths
 Parental norm T1 → Parental norm T2 .35*** .05 .32*** .05 .17* .07 .17* .07
 Parental norm T2 → Parental norm T3 .46*** .05 .43*** .05 .40*** .07 .35*** .07
 Peer norm T1 → Peer norm T2 .22*** .06 .20*** .06 .27*** .07 .27*** .07
 Peer norm T2 → Peer norm T3 .36*** .08 .35*** .08 .47*** .07 .44*** .07
 Non-core T1 → Non-core T2 .26*** .04 .27*** .04 .27*** .04 .27*** .04
 Non-core T2 → Non-core T3 .27*** .07 .25*** .07 .25*** .07 .25*** .07
 Core T1 → Core T2 .30*** .04 .28*** .04 .28*** .04 .28*** .04
 Core T2 → Core T3 .24*** .06 .24*** .06 .25*** .06 .24*** .06
Cross-lagged paths
 Parental norm T1 → Non-core T2 −.04 .06 −.05 .06 −.04 .06
 Parental norm T2 → Non-core T3 −.17 .12 −.21* .10 −.13 .13
 Parental norm T1 → Core T2 −.00 .06 .16** .05 .16** .06
 Parental norm T2 → Core T3 .17 .12 .11 .10 .04 .13
 Peer norm T1 → Non-core T2 .01 .06 .05 .06 .06 .06
 Peer norm T2 → Non-core T3 −.03 .10 .03 .11 .08 .11
 Peer norm T1 → Core T2 .07 .05 −.13* .06 −.15* .06
 Peer norm T2 → Core T3 .00 .10 −.08 .13 −.14 .13
 Non-core T1 → Parental norm T2 −.20* .10 -.19 ms .11 −.17 .12
 Non-core T2 → Parental norm T3 -.16 ms .08 .14 .09 .14 .09
 Non-core T1 → Peer norm T2 −.12 .10 −.02 .11 −.02 .11
 Non-core T2 → Peer norm T3 −.12 .09 −.06 .09 −.06 .09
 Core T1 → Parental norm T2 −.07 . 09 −.14 .11 −.13 .12
 Core T2 → Parental norm T3 −.07 . 08 .15 .09 .15 .09
 Core T1 → Peer norm T2 −.05 . 09 .05 .11 .04 .11
 Core T2 → Peer norm T3 −.03 . 09 −.10 .09 −.08 .09
Cross-sectional associations
 Parental norm T1 ↔ Peer norm T1 .44*** .04 .40*** .04 .48*** .03 .43*** .04
 Parental norm T2 ↔ Peer norm T2 .50*** .05 .48*** .06 .45*** .06 .42*** .06
 Parental norm T3 ↔ Peer norm T3 .35*** .07 .35*** .07 .32*** .06 .33*** .07
 Parental norm T1 ↔ Non-core T1 −.24*** .04 −.22*** .04 −.22*** .05 −.19*** .05
 Parental norm T2 ↔ Non-core T2 −.17** .06 −.15* .06 -.12 ms .07 −.09 .07
 Parental norm T3 ↔ Non-core T3 −.05 .08 .00 .08 .06 .09 .03 .08
 Parental norm T1 ↔ Core T1 .18*** .04 .16*** .04 .18*** .04 .17*** .04
 Parental norm T2 ↔ Core T2 .13 .06 .11 ms .06 .10 ms .06 .12* .06
 Parental norm T3 ↔ Core T3 .08 .07 .05 .07 .01 .07 .03 .07
 Peer norm T1 ↔ Non-core T1 −.15*** .04 −.11** .04 −.12** .04 -.08 ms .04
 Peer norm T2 ↔ Non-core T2 −.15* .07 -.12 ms .07 −.10 .08 −.06 .08
 Peer norm T3 ↔ Non-core T3 −.05 .08 −.04 .09 .02 .08 −.03 .09
 Peer norm T1 ↔ Core T1 .09* .04 .06 .04 .04 .04 .01 .04
 Peer norm T2 ↔ Core T2 .03 .06 .00 .06 .11 .07 .07 .08
 Peer norm T3 ↔ Core T3 .08 .07 .08 .08 .04 .08 .10 .09
 Non-core T1 ↔ Core T1 −.79*** .02 −.79*** .02 −.79*** .02 −.79*** .02
 Non-core T2 ↔ Core T2 −.66*** .04 −.66*** .04 −.66*** .04 −.66*** .04
 Non-core T3 ↔ Core T3 −.74*** .05 −.73*** .05 −.74*** .05 −.74*** .05
 Parental DN T1 ↔ Parental IN T1 −.22*** .04 .22*** .04
 Parental DN T2 ↔ Parental IN T2 .17** .06 .17** .06
 Parental DN T3 ↔ Parental IN T3 .36*** .07 .36*** .07
 Parental DN T1 ↔ Peer IN T1 .40*** .04 .40*** .04
 Parental DN T2 ↔ Peer IN T2 .48*** .06 .48*** .06
 Parental DN T3 ↔ Peer IN T3 .35*** .07 .35*** .07
 Peer DN T1 ↔ Peer IN T1 .17*** .04 .17*** .04
 Peer DN T2 ↔ Peer IN T2 .11 ms .06 .11 ms .06
 Peer DN T3 ↔ Peer IN T3 .30*** .07 .30*** .07
Covariates
 BMI T1 → Core T1 .02 .04 .02 .04 .02 .04 .02 .04
 Age T1 → Core T1 −.11** .04 −.11** .04 −.11** .04 −.11** .04
 Sex T1 → Core T1 .05 .04 .05 .04 .05 .04 .05 .04
 BMI T1 → Non-core T1 −.07* .04 −.07* .04 −.07* .04 −.07* .04
 Age T1 → Non-core T1 .12** .04 .12** .04 .12** .04 .12** .04
 Sex T1 → Non-core T1 −.02 .04 −.02 .04 −.02 .04 −.02 .04
 BMI T1 → Parental norms T1 .05 .04 .05 .04 −.05 .04 −.05 .05
 Age T1 → Parental norms T1 −.11** .04 −.11** .04 .04 .04 .04 .04
 Sex T1 → Parental norms T1 .08* .04 .09* .04 .05 .04 .05 .04
 BMI T1 → Peer norms T1 .05 .04 .05 .04 .02 .04 .01 .04
 Age T1 → Peer norms T1 −.11** .04 −.10** .04 −.03 .04 −.03 .04
 Sex T1 → Peer norms T1 .08* .04 .08* .04 .06 .04 .07 .04
  1. ms marginal significant (p < .08), * p < .05, ** p < .01 *** p < .001