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Table 1 Description of included prospective studies of steps per day, by outcome category

From: Systematic review of the prospective association of daily step counts with risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and dysglycemia

Outcome category (number of studies)ReferenceCohort or StudyCohort characteristics (country)Outcome measure(s)Outcome follow-up time (years)Sample characteristics
Sample size (events; %)Female (%)Age, years
Mean ± SD or Median (IQR)
BMI, kg/m2
Mean ± SD or Median (IQR)
Baseline daily step counts
Mean ± SD or Median (IQR)
All-cause mortality
(N = 5)
Dwyer, 2015 [15]Tasped cohort (3 pooled population cohorts [AusDiab, TASOAC, TASCOG])AusDiab: 1136 adults aged ≥25 years in 1999–2000 (Aus)
TASOAC: 1041 adults ages 50–80 years in 2002–2004 (Aus)
TASCOG: 399 adults ages 60–86 years in 2005 (Aus)
All-cause mortality10n = 2576
(219; 8.5%)
52.458.8 ± 13.227.4 ± 4.88856 ± 4510
Fox, 2015 [16]Project OPAL240 adults aged ≥70 years (UK)All-cause mortality4–5n = 201
(33; 16.4%)
48.8Age, years (%)
70–74.9: 36.6
75–79.9: 26.8
80–84.9: 24.9
85+: 11.7
BMI, kg/m2(%)
< 25.0: 34.3
25.0–29.9: 37.6
≥30.0: 28.2
Tertiles, (%)
< 3196: 31.8
3196–5170: 33.3
> 5170: 34.8
Jefferis, 2019 [17]British Regional Heart Study7735 men aged 40–59 recruited in 1978–1980 (UK)All-cause mortality5n = 1181
(194; 16.4%)
078.4 ± 4.627.1 ± 3.84938 ± 2794
Lee, 2019 [18]Women’s Health Study39,876 US women aged ≥45 recruited in 1992–2004All-cause mortality4n = 16,741 (504; 3%)10072.0 ± 5.726.2 ± 5.05499 (SD not reported)
Yamamoto, 2018 [19]N/A600 adults aged 70 years in 1998 (Japan)All-cause mortality10n = 419
(76; 18.1%)
45.671.0 ± 0.022.6 ± 2.96470 ± 2732
CVD (N = 4)Cochrane, 2017 [20]LIFE RCT1600 mobility-limited older adults aged 70–89 years in 2010–2013 (US)Composite of MI, silent MI, hospitalized angina, congestive heart failure, revascularization with bypass surgery or percutaneous angioplasty, aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, stroke, or transient ischemic attack0.5, 1, and 2n = 1590
(234; 14.7%)
67.278.9 ± 5.230.1 ± 5.92681 ± 1475
Huffman, 2014 [21]NAVIGATOR trial9306 adults with impaired glucose tolerance and existing CVD (if ≥50 years) or with at least 1 additional CVD risk factor (if ≥55 years) in 2002–2004 (multiple)Cardio-metabolic risk score6n = 7118 (N/A)50.663.0 (58.0–69.0)29.6 (26.7–33.2)6178 ± 3833
Jefferis, 2019 [22]British Regional Heart Study7735 men aged 40–59 recruited in 1978–1980 (UK)MI, stroke, or heart failure morbidity or mortality5N = 1181 (122; 10.3%)078.4 ± 4.627.1 ± 3.84938 ± 2794
Yates, 2014 [23]NAVIGATOR trial9306 adults with impaired glucose tolerance and existing CVD (if ≥50 years) or with at least 1 additional CVD risk factor (if ≥55 years) in 2002–2004 (multiple)Composite of time to death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal MI, or non-fatal stroke5n = 9018
(531; 5.9%)
51.063.0 (58.0–69.0)29.6 (26.8–33.3)6245 (4065–9157)
Dysglycemia (N = 8)Kraus, 2018 [26]NAVIGATOR trial9306 adults with impaired glucose tolerance and existing CVD (if ≥50 years) or with at least 1 additional CVD risk factor (if ≥55 years) in 2002–2004 (multiple)Diabetes5n = 9306
(3254; 35.0%)
50.665.0 (59.0–71.0)31.2 (27.7–35.4)6205 ± 3727
Ponsonby, 2011 [27]AusDiab1136 adults aged ≥25 years in 1999–2000 (Aus)Incident dysglycemia5n = 458
(26; 5.7%)
55.949.7 ± 1.526.1 ± 0.410,733 (7695–13,833)
Dwyer, 2011 [24]AusDiab1136 adults aged ≥25 years in 1999–2000 (Aus)Insulin sensitivity5n = 592 (N/A)54.950.8 ± 12.326.5 ± 3.9Men: 10172 (7435–13,928)
Women: 10969 (7889–14,402)
Herzig, 2014 [25]PreDiabEx RCT78 adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes (Finland)Insulin sensitivity, fasting glucose0.25n = 68 (N/A)73.558.8 ± 10.331.7 ± 5.35130 ± 3424
Siddiqui, 2018 [31]N/A95 adults aged 18–65 with type 2 diabetes (South Africa)HbA1c0.25n = 95 (N/A)67.454.7 ± 7.133.2 ± 6.43811 ± 1683
Tudor-Locke, 2004 [28]First Step Program RCT146 adults with diabetes ages 40–60 years (year not given) (Canada)Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c0.3 and 0.5n = 47 (N/A)44.752.7 ± 5.233.3 ± 5.66011 ± 2496
Van Dyck, 2013 [29]N/A92 adults with type 2 diabetes ages 35–75 in 2007HbA1c, fasting glucose0.5 and 1n = 92 (N/A)31.062.0 ± 9.030.0 ± 2.85021 ± 2591
Yates, 2015 [30]NAVIGATOR trial9306 adults with impaired glucose tolerance and existing CVD (if ≥50 years) or with at least 1 additional CVD risk factor (if ≥55 years) in 2002–2004 (multiple)Fasting glucose4n = 3964 (N/A)50.463.0 (58.0–68.0)29.0 (26.3–32.6)6501 (4235–9323)
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation; IQR interquartile range; BMI body mass index; Aus Australia; N/A not applicable; RCT randomized controlled trial; MI myocardial infarction; CVD, cardiovascular disease