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Table 3 Association of daily step counts at baseline and outcome in selected studiesa

From: Systematic review of the prospective association of daily step counts with risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and dysglycemia

ReferenceSample size (events; %)Age, years
mean ± SD or median (IQR)
OutcomeFollow-up time (years)Study reportedStandardizedb
Daily step count unitTested for non-linearityRisk reductionRisk reduction
Dwyer, 2015 [15]2576 (219; 8.5%)58.8 ± 13.2All-cause mortality101000 steps/dayYes6%6%
Yamamoto, 2018c [19]419 (76; 18.1%)71.0 ± 0.0All-cause mortality101000 steps/dayYes7%c7%c
Jefferis, 2019 [17]1181 (194; 16.4%)78.4 ± 4.6All-cause mortality51000 steps/dayYes14%14%
Fox, 2015 [16]201 (33; 16.4%)Not reportedAll-cause mortality4–51000 steps/dayNo36%36%
Lee, 2019 [18]16,741 (504; 3%)72.0 ± 5.7All-cause mortality41000 steps/dayYes18%18%
Jefferis, 2019 [22]1181 (122; 10.3%)78.4 ± 4.6Myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure morbidity or mortality51000 steps/dayYes14%14%
Yates, 2014 [23]9018 (531; 5.9%)63.0 (58.0–69.0)Composite of time to death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke52000 steps/dayYes10%5%
Cochrane, 2017 [20]1590 (234; 14.7%)78.9 ± 5.2Composite of cardiovascular disease events2500 steps/dayNo11%21%
Kraus, 2018 [26]9306 (3254;35.0%)65.0 (59.0–71.0)Diabetes incidence52000 steps/dayYes4%2%
Ponsonby, 2011 [27]458 (26; 5.7%)49.7 ± 1.5Incident dysglycemia51000 steps/dayYes13%13%
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation; IQR interquartile range
  2. a7 studies not included (Huffman, 2014; Dwyer, 2011; Herzig, 2014; Siddiqui, 2019; Tudor-Locke, 2004; Van Dyck, 2013; Yates, 2015) due to analytic methods that could not be harmonized
  3. bExposure of daily steps standardized to 1000 steps/day at baseline and an assumed linear association
  4. cYamamoto, 2018 reported that the linear association between daily step counts and all-cause mortality was not statistically significant. All other studies in the table reported finding a statistically significant linear association between daily step counts and the outcome