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Table 3 Adjusted prevalence/odds ratios/relative risk ratios of unhealthy eating behaviors, underweight, and obesity by level of cooking skills among older Japanese men (n = 9203) and women (n = 10,847)

From: Cooking skills related to potential benefits for dietary behaviors and weight status among older Japanese men and women: a cross-sectional study from the JAGES

 Low frequency of home cookingaHigh frequency of eating outside the homebLow frequency of vegetable and fruit intakecUnderweightdObesitye
APR (95%CI)AOR (95%CI)APR (95%CI)ARRR (95%CI)ARRR (95%CI)
Men
Cooking skillHighrefrefref ref
Middle1.98 (1.86–2.11)1.15 (0.97–1.36)1.15 (1.06–1.26)1.29 (1.04–1.60)0.89 (0.75–1.06)
Low2.56 (2.36–2.77)1.30 (1.01–1.67)1.04 (0.91–1.18)1.43 (1.06–1.92)0.88 (0.68–1.14)
Women
Cooking skillHighrefrefref ref
Middle-Low3.35 (2.87–3.92)0.97 (0.62–1.52)1.61 (1.36–1.91)1.29 (0.99–1.67)0.87 (0.62–1.21)
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, APR adjusted prevalence ratio, ARRR adjusted relative risk ratio, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval
  2. aLow frequency of home cooking: frequency of home cooking ≤2 times/week for women and 0 times/week for men
  3. bHigh frequency of eating outside the home: frequency of eating outside the home ≥3 times/week
  4. cLow frequency of vegetable and fruit intake: frequency of vegetable and fruit intake < 1/day
  5. dUnderweight: BMI < 18.5 kg/m2
  6. eObesity: BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2
  7. The models were adjusted for age, education, annual normalized household income, marital status, and medical treatment (cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia)