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Table 1 Individual characteristics, health-related factors, psychosocial factors, and neighborhood environmental factors (n = 2209)

From: Physical activity-mediated associations between perceived neighborhood social environment and depressive symptoms among Jackson Heart Study participants

  Overall (n = 2209) Neighborhood Violencea P Neighborhood Problemsa P Neighborhood Social Cohesiona P
n (%) High n = 1116 Low n = 1093 High n = 1157 Low n = 1052 High n = 1166 Low n = 1043
Individual characteristics
 Age (years), M (±SD) 52.64 (±12.20) 54.97 (±12.36) 50.27 (±11.57) <.0001 54.96 (±12.39) 50.10 (±11.47) <.0001 52.11 (±12.00) 53.25 (±12.40) 0.0283
 Female 1418 (64.19) 742 (66.49) 417 (38.15) 0.0230 773 (66.81) 645 (61.31) 0.0071 739 (63.38) 679 (65.10) 0.3995
 High School Graduate     <.0001    <.0001    <.0001
  Yes 1959 (88.68) 938 (84.05) 1021 (93.41)   969 (83.75) 990 (94.11)   1072 (91.94) 887 (85.04)  
  No 250 (11.32) 178 (15.95) 72 (6.59)   188 (16.25) 62 (5.89)   94 (8.06) 156 (14.96)  
 Income     <.0001    <.0001    <.0001
   ≥ $50,000 783 (35.45) 289 (25.90) 494 (45.20)   286 (24.72) 497 (47.24)   499 (42.80) 284 (27.23)  
   < $50,000 1140 (51.61) 689 (61.74) 451 (41.26)   730 (63.09) 410 (38.97)   515 (44.17) 625 (59.92)  
  Not reported 286 (12.95) 138 (12.37) 148 (13.54)   141 (12.19) 145 (13.78)   152 (13.04) 134 (12.85)  
Health-related factors
 Body Mass Index, M (±SD) 31.83 (±7.18) 32.10 (±7.40) 31.56 (±6.95) 0.0780 31.90 (±7.32) 31.76 (±7.03) 0.6354 31.60 (±6.90) 32.10 (±7.48) 0.1045
 Total Physical Activity 6.76 (±1.96) 6.48 (±1.96) 7.04 (±1.93) <.0001 6.54 (±1.98) 7.00 (±1.91) <.0001 6.93 (±1.97) 6.56 (±1.93) <.0001
 Current smoker 250 (11.32) 144 (12.90) 106 (9.70) 0.0174 150 (12.96) 100 (9.51) 0.0104 121 (10.38) 129 (12.37) 0.1404
 Alcohol drinkerb 1093 (49.48) 505 (45.25) 588 (53.80) <.0001 522 (45.12) 571 (54.28) <.0001 605 (51.89) 488 (46.79) 0.0167
 Disabled from walking 95 (4.30) 58 (5.20) 37 (3.39) 0.0358 62 (5.36) 33 (3.14) 0.0101 50 (4.29) 45 (4.31) 0.9757
 History of Medical Condition 721 (32.64) 417 (37.37) 304 (27.81) <.0001 438 (37.86) 283 (26.90) <.0001 332 (28.47) 389 (37.30) <.0001
 Depressive Symptoms based on CES-D score 10.79 (±8.05) 11.89 (±8.47) 9.66 (±7.43) <.0001 11.89 (±8.36) 9.58 (±7.52) <.0001 9.92 (±7.60) 11.76 (±8.43) <.0001
Psychosocial factors, M (±SD)
 Lifetime discrimination 3.55 (±1.89) 3.40 (±1.87) 3.70 (±1.91) 0.0002 3.41 (±1.88) 3.70 (±1.90) 0.0004 3.62 (±1.88) 3.47 (±1.91) 0.0523
 Daily discrimination 2.20 (±0.99) 2.20 (±1.05) 2.19 (±0.93) 0.8077 2.21 (±1.04) 2.19 (±0.94) 0.7354 2.20 (±0.96) 2.20 (±1.03) 0.9742
 Burden of lifetime discrimination 2.35 (±0.77) 2.38 (±0.78) 2.32 (±0.76) 0.0785 2.38 (±0.78) 2.33 (±0.76) 0.1498 2.35 (±0.77) 2.36 (±0.77) 0.6732
 Chronic stress 5.64 (±4.45) 5.87 (±4.69) 5.40 (±4.17) 0.0120 5.86 (±4.70) 5.39 (±4.14) 0.0112 5.28 (±4.18) 6.04 (±4.70) <.0001
 Weekly stress 87.22 (±82.25) 90.33 (±86.44) 84.03 (±77.65) 0.0716 90.77 (±86.08) 83.31 (±77.67) 0.0325 81.30 (±76.67) 93.84 (±87.63) 0.0004
Neighborhood Environment at the census tract level, M (±SD)
Perceived neighborhood social environmentc
  Violence 1.25 (±0.12) 1.35 (±0.09) 1.15 (±0.05) <.0001 1.34 (±0.09) 1.15 (±0.05) <.0001 1.19 (±0.07) 1.32 (±0.13) <.0001
  Problems 1.55 (±0.19) 1.69 (±0.13) 1.40 (±0.10) <.0001 1.69 (±0.12) 1.38 (±0.08) <.0001 1.44 (±0.12) 1.66 (±0.18) <.0001
  Social cohesion 3.02 (±0.12) 2.95 (±0.12) 3.09 (±0.08) <.0001 2.95 (±0.11) 3.09 (±0.08) <.0001 3.11 (±0.06) 2.92 (±0.08) <.0001
Objective built environmentd
  Population density (people/km2) 791.61 (±487.82) 1012.09 (±420.60) 566.50 (±447.36) <.0001 1088.86 (±365.89) 464.69 (±385.26) <.0001 620.88 (±463.75) 982.48 (±441.26) <.0001
  1. Note
  2. aBased on the median
  3. bAlcohol consumption in the past 12 months
  4. cEach perceived social environment variable was aggregated to census-tract level based on unconditional empirical Bayes estimation adjusting for age and sex
  5. dPopulation density was measured around 1 mile from participant’s residence
  6. P-values were based on t-tests for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables.