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Table 2 Associations between neighborhood social environment and depressive symptoms scores controlling for covariates among Jackson Heart Study participants (n = 2209)

From: Physical activity-mediated associations between perceived neighborhood social environment and depressive symptoms among Jackson Heart Study participants

  Neighborhood Violence Neighborhood Problems Neighborhood Social Cohesion
B (SE) 95% C.I. B (SE) 95% C.I. B (SE) 95% C.I.
Intercept 7.69 (2.06)*** 3.61, 11.78 7.71 (1.86)*** 4.02, 11.41 17.78 (4.19)*** 9.49, 26.07
Neighborhood Social Environmenta 3.59 (1.34)** 0.93, 6.26 3.06 (0.94)** 1.19, 4.93 −1.96 (1.30) −4.53, 0.61
Individual Characteristics
 Age (years) 0.00 (0.01) −0.02, 0.03 0.00 (0.01) −0.03, 0.03 0.01 (0.01) −0.02, 0.03
 Sex
  Female Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
  Male −1.13 (0.31)*** −1.74, −0.51 − 1.13 (0.31)*** − 1.74, − 0.51 −1.11 (0.31)*** − 1.72, − 0.49
 High School Graduate
  No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes −1.98 (0.47)*** −2.93, − 1.02 −1.97 (0.47)*** − 2.92, − 1.02 −2.02 (0.48)*** − 2.97, − 1.07
 Income
   ≥ $50,000 Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
   < $50,000 1.77 (0.33)*** 1.11, 2.43 1.72 (0.33)*** 1.06, 2.38 1.83 (0.33)*** 1.17, 2.48
  Not reported 1.06 (0.46)* 0.14, 1.98 1.05 (0.46)* 0.13, 1.97 1.11 (0.46)* 0.19, 2.03
Health-Related Factors
 Body Mass Index, M (±SD) 0.01 (0.02) −0.03, 0.05 0.01 (0.02) −0.02, 0.05 0.01 (0.02) −0.02, 0.05
 Total Physical Activity −0.23 (0.07)** − 0.38, − 0.09 −0.23 (0.07)** − 0.38, − 0.09 −0.24 (0.07)** − 0.39, − 0.10
 Current smoker
  No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 0.89 (0.45) −0.01, 1.80 0.89 (0.45) −0.01, 1.79 0.92 (0.45)* 0.02, 1.82
 Alcohol consumption
  No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 0.19 (0.30) −0.40, 0.77 0.19 (0.30) −0.39, 0.78 0.16 (0.30) −0.42, 0.75
 Disabled from walking
  No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 1.46 (0.70)* 0.03, 2.88 1.44 (0.70)* 0.02, 2.86 1.44 (0.70)* 0.01, 2.86
 History of Medical Condition
  No Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
  Yes 0.93 (0.31)** 0.32, 1.54 0.94 (0.31)** 0.32, 1.55 0.94 (0.31)** 0.32, 1.55
Psychosocial Factorsb
 Lifetime discrimination −0.47 (0.18)** − 0.83, − 0.11 − 0.46 (0.18)* − 0.82, − 0.11 − 0.49 (0.18)** − 0.85, − 0.14
 Daily discrimination 0.72 (0.16)*** 0.40, 1.04 0.71 (0.16)*** 0.39, 1.03 0.72 (0.16)*** 0.40, 1.04
 Burden of lifetime discrimination 0.79 (0.16)*** 0.47, 1.12 0.80 (0.16)*** 0.47, 1.12 0.80 (0.17)*** 0.48, 1.12
 Chronic stress 1.32 (0.16)*** 1.00, 1.64 1.32 (0.16)*** 1.00, 1.63 1.33 (0.16)*** 1.01, 1.66
 Weekly stress 2.91 (0.15)*** 2.61, 3.21 2.90 (0.15)*** 2.60, 3.21 2.91 (0.15)*** 2.61, 3.21
Built Environmentc
 Population density (1000 people/km2) −0.15 (0.33) − 0.81, 0.50 − 0.35 (0.35) − 1.04, 0.34 0.06 (0.32) − 0.57, 0.69
  1. Note
  2. aEach perceived social environment variable was based on unconditional empirical Bayes estimation adjusting for age and sex
  3. bBased on scale sores which were standardized by computing z scores with mean zero and one standard deviation
  4. cPopulation density was measured around one mile from participant’s residence
  5. P-values
  6. *p < 0.05
  7. **p < 0.01
  8. ***p < 0.001