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Table 1 Baseline demographic, lifestyle, health indicators and physical functioning by diurnal SB pattern

From: Diurnal patterns of sedentary behavior and changes in physical function over time among older women: a prospective cohort study

Variable Diurnal SB Pattern p-value
1 (n = 2239) 2 (n = 1536) 3 (n = 1137) 4 (n = 1292)
Age (years), mean (SD) 80.6 (6.5) 78.4 (6.4) 78.1 (6.8) 76.3 (6.3) < 0.001
Ethnicity, n (%)          < 0.001
 White 1316 (58.8) 752 (49) 502 (44.2) 506 (39.2)  
 Black 699 (31.2) 478 (31.1) 459 (40.4) 449 (34.8)  
 Hispanic 224 (10.0) 306 (19.9) 176 (15.5) 337 (26.1)  
Education, n (%)          < 0.001
 HS/GED or less 434 (19.5) 337 (22.1) 199 (17.7) 281 (21.8)  
 Some college 936 (42.1) 567 (37.2) 407 (36.2) 477 (37.0)  
 College grad or more 853 (38.4) 622 (40.8) 519 (46.1) 531 (41.2)  
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 29.7 (6.1) 27.5 (5.3) 27.7 (5.4) 26.5 (5.1) < 0.001
Current smoker (Yes), n (%) 73 (3.3) 37 (2.4) 32 (2.8) 20 (1.5) 0.02
Alcohol in past 3 months, n (%)         < 0.001
 0 drinks per week 858 (38.3) 471 (30.7) 382 (33.6) 415 (32.1)  
  < 1 drinks per week 690 (30.8) 538 (35.0) 331 (29.1) 371 (28.7)  
  ≥ 1 drinks per week 460 (20.5) 424 (27.6) 309 (27.2) 408 (31.6)  
 Unknown 231 (10.3) 103 (6.7) 115 (10.1) 98 (7.6)  
Number of morbiditiesa, n (%)        < 0.001
 0 298 (13.4) 293 (19.2) 197 (17.4) 295 (22.9)  
 1 671 (30.1) 567 (37.1) 380 (33.6) 482 (37.4)  
 2 623 (27.9) 401 (26.3) 318 (28.1) 315 (24.5)  
  ≥ 3 637 (28.6) 266 (17.4) 237 (20.9) 196 (15.2)  
Arthritis (Yes), n (%) 1262 (56.4) 822 (53.5) 638 (56.1) 683 (52.9) 0.11
Diabetes (Yes), n (%) 546 (24.4) 285 (18.6) 245 (21.5) 198 (15.3) < 0.001
Stroke (Yes), n (%) 134 (6.0) 63 (4.1) 49 (4.3) 39 (3.0) < 0.001
Self-rated general health, n (%)        < 0.001
 Excellent or very good 909 (40.7) 842 (55.0) 588 (51.9) 777 (60.4)  
 Good 1017 (45.6) 576 (37.6) 441 (38.9) 424 (33.0)  
 Fair or poor 306 (13.7) 114 (7.4) 104 (9.2) 85 (6.6)  
Sedentary time (minutes/day), mean (SD) 668.8 (85.0) 577.5 (75.7) 592.7 (78.0) 501.2 (86.9) < 0.001
MVPA (minutes/day), mean (SD) 28.6 (19.2) 54.2 (28.8) 50.7 (28.0) 82.1 (38.9) < 0.001
Wear time (hours/day), mean (SD) 14.7 (1.4) 14.8 (1.3) 15.1 (1.3) 15.0 (1.3) < 0.001
Wear days, mean (SD) 6.4 (0.9) 6.5 (0.8) 6.5 (0.9) 6.5 (0.8) 0.03
Physical functioning, mean (SD) 58.2 (27.5) 73.7 (22.8) 71 (24.1) 79.3 (21.5) < 0.001
  1. Group differences are tested using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-squared tests for discrete variables
  2. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, HS high school, GED general educational development, BMI body mass index, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
  3. acardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoarthritis, cognitive impairment, depression, history of falls over the last 12 months, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, vision impairment, hearing loss